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A Handbook for Scoutmasters on the 
Theory of Scout Training 


Sir Robert Baden-Powell 

(Chief Scout) 

American Edition 

G. P. Putnam's Sons 

New York and London 

Gbe Imickerbocher press 


Copyright, 1920 






We, of the Boy Scouts of Britain, read with 
great eagerness and much enlightenment all the 
literature that we can get hold of which is pub- 
lished in America on the practice and methods of 
Scouting for Boys. 

In a similar way it may interest our brother 
Scoutmasters in the States to hear something of 
what we are doing over here in the same direction. 

Conditions may differ, temperaments are not 
all alike, national characteristics may vary — but 
for all that I find in my experience that go where 
you will the boy is the same animal, bless him, 
there and here and everywhere. 

Scouting in its pnnciple applies and appeals in 
almost equal degree to the boy whatever may be 
his country, creed, or class. 

Some of my friends iii America have given a 
very kindly greeting fcci my recent book which was 
primarily intended for the assistance of Scout- 
masters in Britain. I have now ventured there- 
fore to bring out this American edition in the hope 
that it may prove of interest to others and induce 
a still closer unity of thought and purpose between 
British and American Scouts, and thus ensure that 

iv Foreword 

the next generation shall carry on and develop 
that splendid spirit of comradeship which was 
engendered in the war between the fighting men of 
America and their British cousins through their 
common sacrifices in a common cause. 

R. B.-P. 

London, January, 1920. 



Our Material ..... 
America's Use for Scouting 
The Church and Education 
Scouting ..... 

The Boy-Man .... 

The Scout Spirit 

The Scout Law .... 

Every Scoutmaster his Own Handbook 
Religion ..... 

What Scouting is not 
What Scouting is ... 
Cadets, Scouts, and Guides 
Possibilities ..... 
National Defects .... 
Suggestion of Work for a Study Patrol 
Study Subjects .... 

Section I. How to Train the Boy 








The Failure of Education .... 27 

The Remedy 29 

What the Boy Scout Training is doing in the 

meantime . . . . . 31 

The Scoutmaster's Share .... 33 

The Boy 36 

Environment ...... 42 



Club and Camp ..... 46 

The Scoutmaster's Duty .... 47 

Loyalty to the Movement ... 48 

Program for Study Patrol (I) . . 51 

Section II. Character 

Character Training through Scouting . 53 
One Reason why a Troop should not Exceed 

Thirty-two 55 

Character ...... 56 

Sense of Honour ..... 58 

Self-reliance ...... 60 

Intelligence ...... 62 

Enjoyment of Life ..... 63 

Program for Study Patrol (II) . . . 69 

Section III. Health and Physical Development 

Health of Body, Mind, and Spirit 

Health and Strength 

C3 men and an Ai Empire 

Self-discipline .... 

Sex-teaching .... 

Rifle Practice .... 

Physical Development Drill 

Health and Hygiene 

Program for Study Patrol (III) . 

Section IV. Making a Career 

The Scoutmaster's Share . 
The Necessary Qualities for Success 
"Pioneering" as a First Step 
Technical Training . 










Employment .... 
Employment Agencies 
Industrial Ignorance 
Program for Study Patrol (IV) 

Section V. Service for Others 

Development of Outlook: Reverence 


Loyalty .... 

Go by the Pace of the Slowest 


To Eradicate Selfishness . 

Fair Play 

Service for the Community 

Program for Study Patrol (V) 

Reconstruction . 

The Education Act and the Boy Scout 
The Attitude of Labour towards Scouting 

Be Ye Prepared 

The Crucible of the Future 


A Parliament of Boys 

A School for Leaders 

The League of Nations 

Appendix: Sample Questions on: 

1. How to Train the Boy 

2. Character Training 









I 4 6 



viii Contents 

3. Physical Health and Development . 161 

4. Making a Career .... 162 

5. Service for Others .... 163 

6. Example of a Week-end Training Pro- 

ram ...... 164 

Object of Wolf Cub Training . -171 



The Material We Have to Deal With 

THE slogan of the times — whether for a nation 
or an individual — seems to be Selbst ilberalles. 
"Down with everything — and up with me." 

The convulsion of the war has opened our eyes 
to many strange things. Few of us had realised 
till war had exposed it how thin is the veneer of 
civilisation over the underlying animal proclivities. 
In the brutality of even those who boasted of their 
superior kultur, in the mad riot of Bolshevism, in 
the want of all Christian consideration for others 
by men in pushing their own claims for money or 
power — in other words, in the world-wide assertion 
of self one cannot help recognising, almost with 
hopelessness, the failure of religion to direct, and 
of education to balance, the actions of men. 

At the same time there is an encouraging reverse 
to the picture, where we see such splendid spirit of 
self-sacrifice and of superhuman endurance and 

2 Aids to Scout mastership 

fearlessness of death among the manhoods of the 
world. With the natural elements, good as well as 
bad, thus exposed, we surely ought to be able to 
oust the worst by the interposition of the best. 

America's Use for Scouting 

America, like more than one of the British Over- 
seas States, has her special use for Scouting. 

When I was there last year a question was raised 
as to omitting from the Scout Laws one upon 
which we laid some stress in England, to the effect 
that "A Scout is kind to animals." 

It was held that in America there was little need 
for such a law as the American boy is naturally 
fond of animals. I agree, but there are in the 
United States a pretty large number of boys, under 
the Stars and Stripes but of foreign blood, boys 
who are in the process of being Americanised. It 
is for these that such law is necessary if they are to 
be Boy Scouts; if they are not to be Boy Scouts, 
well then it will take three times as long to make 
them good Americans. 

The object of the Scout training is, it is true, to 
improve the individual character of every boy so 
that he shall be a better and a happier citizen ; but 
also it can go further than this, it can bring the 
boys of other origin into closer comradeship with 
the American boys in a way that no legislation o r 
co-schooling can do ; and through sharing together 
the joys of Scouting games and through making 

Introductory 3 

common sacrifices in carrying out together the 
community services of Scouts the boys of foreign 
blood become closely allied with those of the land 
of their adoption. 

In a word they become automatically Ameri- 

The Church and Education 

In our own country we have realised in what 
directions we were failing morally, materially, and 
physically, and where we can, if we will, remedy 
our national defects. Whether we are going to 
profit by the lessons of the war and really bring 
our education and religion up to meet present day 
needs is another question. New Education Acts 
altering the hours of the curriculum, new rubrics 
based on the letter of some old-time instruction, 
are only going to scratch the surface; it is deep 
ploughing out that is needed to kill the weeds and 
to bring on the healthy crop. 

Is not a new and wider survey now needed on the 
part of the authorities whether of Church or State 
or Schools, and a practical recognition of the pre- 
sent day needs? Cannot a remedy be devised 
more in accordance with the modern spirit of free- 
dom, something in the direction of a true education 
through the development of an eager desire from 
within on the part of the individual to improve 
himself in place of the out-of-date imposition of 
automatic instruction upon the mass from with- 

4 Aids to Scoutmastership 

The Report of the Mission of Repentance and 
Hope sounds one call, among many others, in this 
direction. Will it be responded to? 


It is at any rate gratifying to us in the Scout 
Movement to find that the lessons of the war do 
not call for any great change in our aims or 
methods, and it is a further encouragement to 
realise that not only here in Great Britain, but in 
most other civilised countries, educationists and 
others are turning to our system as one which may 
help in a practical way to remedy some at least of 
the previous shortcomings. 

So it is up to us to develop our efficiency in order 
to respond to the expectations that have been 
formed of us. For this reason, as a temporary 
measure to meet the present need, I offer this 
reprint of a short course of Scoutmasters' Training 
much of which has already appeared in the Scout 
Headquarters Gazette. 

The Boy-Man 

As a preliminary word of comfort to intending 
Scoutmasters, I should like to contradict the usual 
misconception that, to be a successful Scoutmaster, 
a man must be an Admirable Crichton — a know- 
all. Not a bit of it. 

He has simply to be a boy-man, that is : 

Introductory 5 

(i) He must have the boy spirit in him; and 
must be able to place himself on a right plane with 
his pupils as a first step. 

(2) He must realise the psychology of the dif- 
ferent ages of boy life. 

(3) He must deal with the individual pupil rather 
than with the mass. 

(4) He then needs to promote a corporate spirit 
among his individuals to gain the best results. 

These are the main principles on which the Scout 
and Girl Guide training is based. 

With regard to the first point, the Scoutmaster 
has to be neither Schoolmaster nor Commanding 
Officer, nor pastor, nor instructor. All that is 
needed is the capacity to enjoy the out-of-doors, to 
enter into the boys' ambitions, and to find other 
men who will give them instruction in the desired 
directions, whether it be boxing or flute playing, 
nature study or engineering. 

He has got to put himself on the level of the older 
brother, that is to see things from the boy's point 
of view, and to lead and guide and give enthusiasm 
in the right direction. That is all. 

The movement is a jolly fraternity, all the jollier 
because in the game of Scouting you are doing a big 
thing for others, you are combating the kultur of 

Regarding the second point, the handbooks for 
Wolf Cubs, Scouts, Girl Guides, and Rovers cover 
the successive phases of adolescent life. 

Thirdly, the business of the Scoutmaster — and a 

6 Aids to Scoutmastership 

very interesting one it is — is to draw out each boy 
and find out what is in him, and then to catch hold 
of the good and develop it to the exclusion of the 
bad. There is five per cent, of good even in the 
worst character. The sport is to find it, and then 
to develop it on to an 80 or 90 per cent, basis. 
This is education instead of instruction of the young 
mind, which you will find more fully dealt with in 
Scouting for Boys or in Girl Guiding. 

Fourth. In the Scout training the Patrol or 
gang system gives the corporate expression of the 
individual training, which brings into practice all 
that the boy has been taught. 

The Patrol system and its methods and power 
are described in the text-books, and since it is the 
key to successful results it should be fully studied. 

The Scout Spirit 

The underlying feature is the spirit of the 
Movement, and the key that unlocks this spirit 
is the romance of Woodcraft and Nature Lore. 

Where is there a boy, or for the matter of that 
a grown-up man, even in these materialistic times 
to whom the call of the wild and the open road 
does not appeal? 

Maybe it is a primitive instinct — anyway it is 
there. With that key a great door may be un- 
locked, if it is only to admit fresh air and sun- 
shine into lives that were otherwise grey. 

But generally it can do more than this. 

Introductory 7 

The heroes of the wild, the frontiersmen and 
explorers, the rovers of the sea, the airmen of the 
clouds are Pied Pipers to the boys. 

Where they lead the boys will follow, and these 
will dance to their tune when it sings the song of 
manliness and pluck, of adventure and high en- 
deavour, of efficiency and skill, of cheerful sacrifice 
of self for others. 

There's meat in this for the boy; there's soul in 

Watch that lad going down the street, his eyes 
are looking far out. Is his vision across the prairie 
or over the grey -backed seas? At any rate, it 
isn't here. Don't I know it! 

Have you never seen the buffaloes roaming in 
Kensington Gardens past that very spot where Gil- 
Bias met the robbers behind the trees? And can't 
you see the smoke from the Sioux Lodges under 
the shadow of the Albert Memorial? I have seen 
them there these fifty years. 

Through Scouting the boy has now the chance to 
deck himself in a frontier kit as one of the great 
Brotherhood of Backwoodsmen. He can track 
and follow signs, he can signal, he can light his 
fire and build his shack and cook his grub. He 
can turn his hand to many things in pioneer- and 

His Unit is a band of six, commanded by their 
own boy leader. Here's the natural gang of the 
boy, whether for good or for mischief. Here's 
responsibility and self-discipline for the individual. 

8 Aids to Scoutmastership 

Here's esprit de corps for the honour of the Patrol 
as strong as any house-spirit in a public school. 

To the outsider's eye the Scout's staves are so 
many broomsticks, but to the Scout they are differ- 
ent. His staff, decorated with his own particular 
totem and signs, is typical ; like his staff, among a 
mass he is an individual having his own traits, his 
own character, his own potentialities. 

He may be one of a herd, but he has his own 
entity. He gets to know the joy of life through 
the out-of-doors. 

Then there is a spiritual side. 

Through sips of Nature Lore imbibed in wood- 
land "hikes" the puny soul grows up and looks 
around. The outdoors is par excellence the school 
for observation and for realising the wonders of a 
wondrous universe. 

It opens to the mind appreciation of the beauti- 
ful that lies before it day by day. It reveals to 
the City youngster that the stars are there beyond 
the City chimney-pots, and the sunset clouds are 
gleaming in their glory far above the roof of the 
cinema theatre. 

The study of Nature brings into a harmonious 
whole the questions of the Infinite, the Historic, 
and the Microscopic as part of the Great Creator's 
work. And in these sex and reproduction play an 
honoured part. 

Scoutcraft is a means through which the veriest 
hooligan can be brought to higher thought and to 
the elements of faith in God; and, coupled with 

Introductory 9 

the Scout's obligation to do a good turn every 
day, it gives the base of Duty to God and to 
Neighbour on which the parent or pastor can build 
with greater ease the form of belief that is desired. 

I don't think it can be done through "form 

And that after all is the secret of the thing — the 
spirit of the Brotherhood. 

You can dress a lad as Cowboy, as a Tommy or a 
You can drill him till he looks as smart as paint, 
But it does not always follow when you come to 
scratch his back 
That he's really either hero or a saint. 

It is the spirit within, not the veneer without 
that does it. 

And the spirit is there in every boy when you 
get him, only it has to be discovered and brought 
to light. 

The Scout Promise to carry out, on his honour, 
as far as in him lies, the Scout Law is our binding 
disciplinary force, and with ninety-nine out of a 
hundred it pays. 

The Scout Law 

(i) A Scout's honour is to be trusted. 

(2) A Scout is loyal to the King, his country, 

his officers, his parents, his employers, 

and to those under him. 

io Aids to Scoutmastership 

(3) A Scout's duty is to be useful and to help 


(4) A Scout is a friend to all, and a brother 

to every other Scout, no matter to 
what social class the other belongs. 

(5) A Scout is courteous. 

(6) A Scout is a friend to animals. 

(7) A Scout obeys orders of his parents, 

Patrol leader, or Scoutmaster without 

(8) A Scout smiles and whistles under all 


(9) A Scout is thrifty. 

(10) A Scout is clean in thought, word, and deed. 

Every Scoutmaster His Own Handbook 

Two simple yet powerful aids to boy training 
exist ready to hand in (1) the wonderful enthu- 
siasm inherent in the boy; (2) the trainer's own 
experience of life. 

One Scoutmaster has told me that he takes my 
weekly remarks in the Scout as his text for his 
week's work with his boys. 

His conclusion after reading a good many of 
these weekly paragraphs is that ' ' I want to make 
the boy happy." 

Well I am glad that he has realised this, because 
it is really the aim of our training. We want to 
show the boys how to be happy, how to enjoy life, 
both first in the present and second in the future. 

Introductory n 

We are not a Cadet Corps or Brigade, nor are we 
a Council School ; with all respect to these institu- 
tions their aims and methods are not exactly the 
same as ours ; we want to make the boys happy for 
ultimate good citizenship. It is true that incident- 
ally in doing so we give them the benefits that can 
be got from these other societies, for Scouting also 
develops Discipline and Health and Knowledge, 
but at the same time it directly aims to make 
its followers better citizens through Happiness 
and Service, which is outside the sphere of the 
others. The smile and the good turn are our 

In helping the boy to be happy in the present 
we do so by utilising and encouraging his impulses 
and activities, by edging them into the right 
direction and control. 

In preparing him for happiness ultimately in 
his life we can each of us do much by looking at 
our own experiences and steering him clear of 
rocks on which we in our time have very nearly 
come to grief ourselves. 


To the man who reads Scouting for Boys super- 
ficially there is a disappointing lack of religion in 
the book. But to him who tries it in practice the 
basic religion underlying it soon becomes apparent. 
This is not that of any particular church or sect, 
but it catches on to the boy without his knowing 

12 Aids to Scoutmastership 

it, and gives him a Christianity for everyday 
practice, and not merely for Sunday wear. 

One writer has recently said of Scouting — 
"What are the Churches doing to neglect such a 

Well, they are beginning to use it now. 

The Bishop of Winchester has recently con- 
fessed that the book which he uses as his text-book 
for Confirmation is Scouting for Boys. 

What Scouting is Not 

Experience in different fields shows that there 
are certain shoals to be avoided in launching 
Scouting, lest it get stranded in commercialism or 
diverted into dead-end channels that never lead 
to the open sea. 

Here, then, are some of the things that Scouting 
is not: 

It is not a charity organisation for people in 
society to run for the benefit of the poor children. 

It is not a school having a definite curriculum 
and standards of examination. 

It is not a brigade of officers and privates for 
drilling manliness into boys and girls. 

It is not a messenger agency for the convenience 
of the public. 

It is not a show where surface results are gained 
through payment in merit badges, medals, etc. 

These all come from without, whereas the Scout 
training all comes from within. 

Introductory 13 

What Scouting is 

It is a game in which elder brothers (or sisters) 
in give their younger brothers healthy environ- 
ent and encourage them to healthy activities 
ch as will help them to develop citizenship. 
Its strongest appeal is through Nature Study 
id Woodcraft. It deals with the individual, not 
.th the Company. It raises intellectual as well 
purely physical or purely moral qualities. 
Happy citizenship developed through the im- 
dse from within rather than through impression 
Dm without, individual efficiency encouraged and 
en harnessed for the good of the community — 
at is our scheme. At first Scouting used to hope 
- these ends — now by experience we know that, 
lere properly handled, it gains them. 
Perhaps the best exponent of the aims and 
jthods of Scouting has been Dean Russell, Pro- 
sor of Education at Columbia University. He 
ites thus: 

"By encouraging your Scouts in a healthy, 
eery, and not in a sanctimonious looking-for- a- 
vard spirit to do good turns as a first step and 
do service for the community as a development, 
u can do more for them even than by encourag- 
l their proficiency or their discipline or their 
owledge, because you are teaching them not 
w to get a living so much as how to live. 
"Our Schools are long in their ability to give 
ormation — knowledge which shall be of worth 

H Aids to Scoutmastership 

to future citizens ; they are competent to go a long 
way in the matter of stirring the right feeling 
and developing the right appreciations on the part 
of the citizens; but they are all too short when it 
comes to fixing those habits and developing and 
encouraging activities without which the individ- 
ual may be a pretty poor and even a very danger- 
ous citizen. It is right at this point that the 
Scouting program supplements the work of the 
schools. Its curriculum is adjusted in such a way 
that the more you study it and the further you 
go into it, you who are schoolmasters, the more 
you must be convinced that there was a discovery 
made when it was put forth. 

"The program of the Boy Scouts is the man's 
job cut down to boy's size. It appeals to the boy 
not merely because he is a boy, but because he 
is a man in the making. And it is just at this 
point that the program of so many organi- 
sations for boys and girls breaks down. It is an 
easy thing, as every teacher knows, to appeal to 
a flitting fancy of the adolescent age. There is a 
time when the boy is delighted with a tomahawk 
and feathers and buckskin leggings. And you can 
put over a very considerable program based 
on that kind of symbolism. One of the great 
organisations for girls has made, it seems to me, 
an irretrievable mistake in appealing to just that 
kind of passing fancy. The Scouting program, 
however, changes that squarely. It does not ask 
of the boy anything that the man does not do; 

Introductory 15 

but step by step it takes him from the place 
where he is until he reaches the place where he 
would be. . . . 

"It is not the curriculum of Scouting that is the 
most striking feature, but it is the method. And 
on the method of Scouting I venture to say there is 
something we have not seen elsewhere in our day. 
There is nothing comparable to it, so far as I 
know, that has been turned out in three or four 
centuries past. As a systematic scheme of leading 
boys to do the right thing and to inculcate right 
habits it is almost ideal. In the doing, two things 
stand out — the one is that habits are fixed; the 
other is that it affords an opportunity for initi- 
ative, self-control, self-reliance, and self-direction. 
And these two ends are implicit in all our edu- 
cational efforts. . . . 

"There is of course nothing in life better than 
good habits. There is no drag in life compared 
with a bad habit. To the extent, therefore, that 
the Scout leader can develop right habits he is 
performing a service of inestimable value, the 
kind of service that every parent wants, the kind 
of service to which every teacher would gladly 
contribute; the kind of service that is needed in 
this life towards which our boys are headed. At 
the same time, Scouting does not overemphasize 
this fixation of habits. Here again is where the 
genius of the man who planned it shines forth, 
I think, most brilliantly. I could designate to 
you, and perhaps you will recall spontaneously, 

16 Aids to Scoutmastership 

great schemes which have worked out in such a 
way as to restrict the freedom of action of the 
individual by fixing habits which later became 
a hindrance to the development of a citizen in a 
free republic. I have only to say one word — 

"In the development of initiative Scouting de- 
pends not merely on its program of work for the 
boy, but in a marvellous way it also utilises its ma- 
chinery of administration. In the administrative 
scheme a splendid opportunity is given to break 
away from any incrusting method. It comes 
about in the Patrol and in the Troop. It teaches 
the boys to work together in teams. It secures 
co-operative effort for a common end; that is a 
democratic thing in and of itself. My friends, as 
a schoolmaster, I want to tell you that it is my 
honest conviction that our schools in America 
supported by the public for the public good will not 
be equal to the task of the next generation unless 
we incorporate into them as much as is possible of 
the Scouting spirit and the Scouting method, and 
in addition to that, fill up just as many as possible 
of the leisure hours of the boy with the out and 
out program of Scouting. We have no examina- 
tions in college or school for moral character or 
patriotism or good citizenship. We have not yet 
developed an instrument for measuring those hab- 
its that make for righteousness in a democratic 
state. Here is an instrument and a program 
which directs itself to that end specifically. I 

Introductory 17 

am confident therefore that when schoolmasters 
realise their obligation to the State, when they 
understand what the public want and must even- 
tually have, when they sound the depths of their 
own patriotism and realise that upon them, more 
than perhaps upon any other class of American, 
depends the future welfare of this country, they 
will not leave untested and untried an instrument 
that makes for so much good." 

Cadets, Scouts, and Guides 

The following general comparative survey of 
the Scout training appeared in the Times of 14th 
July, 1 91 8, and may give a useful line to Scout- 
masters : 

"Both Cadet and Scout movements are out for 
the good of the boy. The outstanding difference 
between their respective methods of training is that 
of principle — one works through impression, the 
other through expression. The Cadet training 
imposes collective instruction upon the boys from 
without; while the Scout movement encourages 
self-development on the part of the individual 
from within. Military drill fashions him on to an 
approved standard as a part of the machine; 
whereas the aim of Scouting is to develop his per- 
sonal character and initiative as a first step. 

'"You cannot teach character, any more than 
you can teach religion, collectively to a class' is, 
I believe, an axiom accepted by educationists. 

1 8 Aids to Scoutmastership 

The battalion or company may be the medium 
for giving excellent finish to older lads who have 
had previous grounding in character, but it is not 
a school in which character can be taught in the 
first instance. This fact I discovered for myself 
long ago when training young soldiers in the 
Army. For parade purposes the drilled article 
was fine, for war purposes useless. My first step, 
therefore, was to instil into each young soldier 
character; that is to say, personal initiative, self- 
control, sense of honour and duty, responsibility, 
self-reliance, observation and deduction, etc. Thk 
was done through the method now known ak 
Scouting — in other words, through education-* 
not merely instruction — of the individual in mor>« 
and mental qualities. The final polish of drill wa v 
then quite easily applied to give the collectrv 
discipline and cohesion needed for military pur- 
poses. It was thus a true polish on seasoned 
foundations, and not a veneer that would crack 
off under strain. The same moral qualities are 
equally the basis for building good citizenship, and 
it may be that such a filing down process may 
then have its use in fitting individuality into its 
place in the civic machine. 

"We cannot, however, disregard the social 
evolution that is going on around us. Self-deter- 
mination is in the air for the individual as it is for. 
the State. I am therefore inclined to think that 
the continuation of the Scout training towards 
producing the habit of self-reliance, unselfish out- 



Introductory 19 

look, and balanced freedom and self-expression is 
perhaps the most important point in our training, 
and is a more practical preparation for sane demo- 
cracy than the repression of such qualities under 
temporary collective discipline. We have had 
an object-lesson in Russia to show that this latter 
will not prevent Bolshevism. 

"The aim of the Cadet movement is pre- 
sumably, like that of the Scouts, to supply an 
environment and activities in the lads' leisure time 
on lines complementary to the school training. 
•But to offer the old style of imposed instruction 
$eems neither complementary nor complimentary 
to the modern educationist's methods, nor in keep- 
-*iig with the needs of the times. Then, again, 
\n the matter of psychology. At this most diffi- 
cult age what is good for the adolescent of sixteen 
is not equally so for the lad of fifteen, and may be 
bad for the boy of fourteen or thirteen. Yet the 
Cadet training treats them all on the same footing. 
Whereas the Scout training, though for both 
seniors and juniors it comprises the same four 
principles, viz.: Character, Handicrafts, Health, 
and Service, varies their details to meet the differ- 
ent stages of the boys' progressivity. 

"Space forbids me going into many interesting 
points on this head, but if we take one alone it 
will suffice. Probably the average man in the 
street scarcely realises the extent to which immoral- 
ity is rife among lads, not merely the poorest — 
indeed, it is probably less prevalent among the 

20 Aids to Scoutmastership 

working-boys than among those who have leisure 
time on their hands — throughout the country — 
but it is there; and too little is done to stop it or 
prevent it. There is a difference between stop- 
ping what exists and preventing it before it comes 
into existence. Individual education is, I am 
certain, the only way to 'prevent' in this case. It 
means a close confidence between teacher and 
pupil, on the relationship of elder and younger 
brother; a different treatment of each case being 
employed through personal knowledge of his 
temperament, age, and character. You cannot 
get this relation between an officer and his com- 
pany of one hundred or more Cadets, but where 
established it means everything towards training 
the boy in character, in religious belief, and in all 
that tends to build the man. For military pur- 
poses most soldiers who have experience of it 
regard the Cadet training of young boys as of 
negligible value ; so much of it has to be unlearned 
afterwards. The War Office bear them out in 

1 ' One of my boys put in the form of a question 
the other day a criticism rather difficult to answer: 
— 'If they are not going to make Cadets into 
soldiers, isn't it a bit of camouflage to register 
them under the War Office and put their officers in 
the Army list?' Well, it is a matter of whether 
you elect to put gilt on your pill or sugar. We 
put sugar on the pill of Scout craft. 

"Personal experience of Cadets, as a Cadet, as 

Introductory 21 

a commander of Cadets, and as an interested 
visitor to Cadets in Australia, Canada, South 
Africa, New Zealand, and Russia, showed to me 
that the system did not do all that was wanted 
towards what was most needed — namely, prepar- 
ing boys for conscientious, efficient, happy citizen- 
hood, on up-to-date lines. Had it done so I should 
not have bothered about evolving the Scout 
scheme. Other reasons there are which prevent 
us asking to come under the control of the War 
Department, since they involve our oversea 
relations. The Scout brotherhood has, in the ten 
years of its existence, already spread itself to 
almost every civilised country, as well as to every 
British Oversea State. That, however, is another 
story which, although teeming with interesting 
possibilities, is outside the scope of this letter. 
The results of the system have at any rate been 
successful beyond our hopes, both in effect and in 
popularity (and we have some 750,000 Scouts in 
training over the world to-day)." 


Having thus spread itself automatically about 
the world the Scout and Guide movement has the 
following possibilities : 

(a) The making of the individual into an 
efficient and happy citizen. 

(b) The harnessing of the individual to work 
for the community. 

22 Aids to Scoutmastership 

(c) The strengthening of the bond of the Brit- 
ish Commonwealth through its brotherhood. 

(d) The promotion of International goodwill 
again through its brotherhood, as a practical step 
towards permanent peace. 

National Defects 

We want to prevent in the next generation some 
of the defects apparent in the present. On p. 23 
is a statement of these, together with the steps 
which we employ in Scouting to remedy them. 

Such are the failings and remedies which fall 
outside the school purview, and with which we 
endeavour to deal in the Scout movement. 

How to help the Scoutmaster most readily to 
master them is the object of this work. 

Through mutual conferences and instruction it 
can be done most happily. 

Suggestion of Work for a Study Patrol 

Where there are a number of candidates living 
in the same town or district, it is suggested they 
might form themselves into a Study Patrol, and 
on pp. 24-25 is the program suggested, which 
can, of course, be altered to suit local conditions. 
It is very desirable to get an experienced Scout- 
master, where possible, to act as Leader. 

Commissioners and Scoutmasters might do good 
work by collecting a number of young men from 

Introductory 23 



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24 Aids to Scoutmastership 

among their friends and explaining the scheme to 
them with the view to forming such a Patrol. 

Roughly, one night a week for four weeks might 
be given to each of the five subjects specified 

Principles could be taught by an informal 
lecture with questions and discussion for about an 
hour, followed by practical work for another hour. 

Where circumstances permit, a week-end camp 
will give the best opportunity for training, and 
each Patrol should try to arrange one at the end of 
each four weeks. If the weather is too bad for 
the first month or two, the use of some Scout Hall 
or other building at the seaside or in the country 
might be obtained. 

List of Subjects for Study 

I. Boy Training and See Preface and Chap- 
the need of it. ter X. Scouting for Boys, 

Hints on How to start a 
Troop. See also The Wolf 
Cub Handbook, and The 
Rover pamphlet. 
II. Character Training. The Scout Law, Wood- 
craft, Camping, Chivalry, 
Happiness and Enjoyment 
of Life, Observation, 
Scouting Games, Seaman- 
III. Physical Health and Physical Exercises and 
Development. Reasons for each, Health- 



IV. Self-Improvement 
for making a 

V. Service for Others. 
(Chivalry and 
self-sacrifice the 
basis of Religion.) 

giving Habits, Games, 
Sanitation, Prevention of 
Disease, Temperance and 
Continence, Smoking, Self- 

Handicrafts, Work for 
Badges, Thrift, Citizen- 
ship, Dangers of Drink, 
Gambling, Impurity. 

Helpfulness, First Aid, 
Accidents, Life Saving, 
Fire Brigade, Missioners, 


// looks difficult but it is not so 

TO an outsider Scouting must at first sight 
appear to be a very complex matter, and 
many a man is probably put off from be- 
coming a Scoutmaster because of the enormous 
number and variety of things that he thinks he 
would have to know in order to teach his boys. 
But it need not be so, if the man will only realise 
the following points: 

i. The aim of Scouting is quite a simple one. 

2. His work is merely to give to the boy the 

ambition and desire to learn for himself. 

3. That this is done by suggesting to him 

activities which attract him, and which 
then teach him by failing to work till he, 
by experience, does them aright. 

4. The numerous branches and details given 

in Scouting for Boys merely suggest ac- 
tivities from which he may select those 
likely to catch the different kinds of 

This form of educating is very much on the 
principle of Dr. Montessori's system. She was 


How to Train the Boy 27 

recently asked how her system would be applied 
to children when they had grown out of the infant 
stage after six or seven years of age. And she 
replied, "You in England have the Boy Scouts, 
and their training is the natural continuation of 
that which I give to the children." It is the line 
that eventually education will take when it comes 
to be set upon a right footing. 

The Failure of Education 

In judging of education as in other questions, 
we have to go by results and not by methods in 
estimating its success. 

The aim of education presumably is to produce 
God-fearing, healthy, prosperous, and therefore 
happy citizens. Have we got these? 

We may have a percentage of them, but the 
qualities largely representative among our nation 
are the following : 

Irreligion. — In spite of eight millions subscribed 
annually to the Church of England we cannot say 
that we are ahead of other forms or beliefs, includ- 
ing the Mohammedans, in having a religion which 
really holds the masses of the population. 

Physically Defective. — Our average men are not, 
as a rule, well-developed types, nor are they sound 
in health. A million unfit for the army, and 36 
per cent. C3 men is one of the exposures of the war. 
The number of hours of work lost through ill- 
health throughout the year mounts up to an 

28 Aids to Scoutmastership 

appalling total of millions; eyesight and hearing 
are both defective among a large percentage of our 
rising generation, and sound teeth are the excep- 
tion; yet all these elements of physical inefficiency, 
which mean defective work for themselves and 
for the nation, are preventable with a certain 
amount of care and education. Infant mortality 
is almost as heavy as it was thirty or forty years 
ago, and will be, until parents understand their 
duties better, or until the State intervenes and 
takes charge of infants. 

Want of Skill and Thrift. — The school training 
of our citizens only goes so far as to teach them 
reading, writing, and arithmetic, up to the import- 
ant age when they can begin to use their intelli- 
gence and really develop their minds, and, at this 
point, it drops them altogether and leaves them to 
make their own character for life. Continuation 
classes and technical schools of the best kind exist, 
it is true, but only for the best lads, and, even then, 
till the Fisher Act is in working order, those who 
are employed have to attend them when their 
day's work is done and when their powers are at 
their lowest, so that the best value is not got out 
of these schools. 

The want of thrift amongst all classes is shown 
by the fact that our banking of savings is lower 
than that of most other countries, and compulsory 
insurance only seems to promote less thrift. 
Blind-alley occupations seem to take something 
like 50 per cent, of our boys, whereas in Germany 

How to Train the Boy 29 

only 8 per cent, are allowed to drift into them, 
resulting in much unemployedness and unemploy- 
ableness as these boys grow up to man's age. This 
means numbers of poor and disheartened men — 
the easy prey for political demagogues, without 
any sense of fair play or even of their own best 
interests. This wastage is not so much the fault 
of the men as of the system which permits it. 
For, as Mr. John Burns himself has said, there is 
work for all and money for all in the country if all 
were fit to have them, but so few are qualified 
and so few are thrifty. Here is our national 
balance-sheet before the war, which has since 
gone up adversely : 

Spent on educating to be good citizens £28,000,000 
Spent on remedying failures in good 

citizenship by prisons, police, 

poor relief, etc. £38,000,000 

Until the balance is on the other side of the 
ledger education cannot well be called a complete 

The Remedy 

The remedy which is now generally being sug- 
gested for the improvement of the efficiency of our 
nation is that instruction which has hitherto passed 
as education should be done away with as out-of- 
date, and education proper established in its place. 

30 Aids to Scoutmastership 

As a first subject character training should be 
introduced into primary and secondary schools, 
since it is the essential quality for a man in making 
his career, as well as for a nation in maintaining 
its place in the competition in commerce and 

Secondly, that handicrafts should be introduced 
into day schools, not merely with the sole idea of 
making the child into a good workman — which 
seems to have been the limit of view of education 
in the past — but as the means of instilling energy, 
application, resourcefulness, invention, design, and 
other properties which go to develop the mind, 
and intelligence, character and thrift; and also of 
showing to the teacher the natural bent of each 
individual pupil. 

Thirdly, education in civics, contemporary his- 
tory, and commercial geography would all 
raise the level of throught and work among the 
rising generation. 

Also, there is a large opportunity amongst the 
enormous proportion of physically defective child- 
ren in our midst, who are at present merely taken 
into " Homes" and made as comfortable as possi- 
ble during the remainder of their unhappy exist- 
ence, whereas much might be done by education 
to draw them out to have hopes and ambitions, 
and to develop a certain amount of ability and 
energy that would lead them out of themselves, 
and enable a fair percentage to be, if not self- 
supporting, at least self-sufficient. 

How to Train the Boy 3 1 

The aim of education generally has been well 
summarised in that excellent paper The Child, in 
these words: 

"No man can be called educated who has not a 
willingness and a desire, as well as a trained ability 
to do his part in the world's work." And this is 
the main road to happiness and prosperity for all. 

What the Boy Scout Training is Doing in the 

Whatever may come of the various ideas put 
forward for the improvement of the general edu- 
cation of the nation, the Scout training, together 
with that of other organisations of boys, such as 
the Boys' Brigade, the Y. M. C. A., the C. L. B., 
and others, is already doing much in the required 
direction of making the boys disciplined, self- 
respecting citizens. In our training we have per- 
haps gone a step further than other organisations 
in taking up the following five branches which 
have so far been left out of the school curriculum, 
and yet are essential in building up good citizens, 
and we inculcate them from within instead of 
from without. 

Character. — Which we teach through Scout lore, 
woodcraft, responsibility of the Patrol Leader, and 
the resourcefulness involved in camp work. 

Hobbies and Handicrafts. — Through pioneering, 
bridge-building, camp expedients, which all tend 
to make efficient workmen. 

32 Aids to Scoutmastership 

Health and Bodily Development. — Through games, 
exercises, and knowledge of personal hygiene and 

Happiness. — Includes how to enjoy the pleasure 
of lives that are offered in the study of nature 
whether animate or inanimate; biology with its 
natural processes giving a natural understanding 
of the sex question, the realisation of God the 
Creator through his works; the appreciation of 
beauty in Nature; self-expression through the 
arts and through the love of plants or animals with 
whom the life has made one familiar. 

Service for Others. — The carrying into daily life 
of the practice of religion by "good turns," dealing 
with accidents, life-saving, etc. 

The Scout training attracts boys of all classes, 
high and low, rich and poor, and even catches the 
physically defective, deaf mutes, and blind. It 
inspires the desire to learn. It gives a good start 
in technical training through badges for proficiency 
in various kinds of hobbies and handicrafts. The 
object of offering as many as we do at an elemen- 
tary standard is to draw out the boys of every 
type to try their hands at various kinds of work, 
and the watchful Scoutmaster can very quickly 
recognise the particular bent of each boy and 
encourage it accordingly. And that is the best 
road towards expanding his individual character 
and starting a boy on a successful career. 

Moreover, Scout training holds the boy after 
the age of fourteen, and can be further used when 

How to Train the Boy 33 

he gives up school to continue his education and 
to give him the benefit of high ideals and friendly 
advice at the critical period of his life when he 
most needs them. The effects of the training on 
physically defective boys has been reported upon 
by doctors and superintendents in most hopeful 

The Scoutmaster's Share 

The principles, therefore, of Scouting are all in 
the right direction. The success in their appli- 
cation depends on the Scoutmaster and how he 
applies them. The object of this course of train- 
ing is to endeavour to help the Scoutmaster in 
this particular. First, by showing the object 
of the Scout training; secondly, by suggesting 
methods by which it may be carried out. Many 
a Scoutmaster would probably desire I should 
give him all particulars in detail. But this would 
in reality be an impossibility, because what suits 
one particular Troop or one kind of boy, in one 
kind of place, will not suit another within a mile 
of it, much less those scattered over the world and 
existing under totally different conditions. But 
one can give a certain amount of general sug- 
gestion, and Scoutmasters in applying this can 
judge for themselves far best which details are 
most likely to bring about success in their own 
particular Troops. I can only, therefore, recom- 
mend fresh study of Scouting for Boys, especially 

34 Aids to Scoutmastership 

Chapter X., and that section of it which is included 
under the heading, "Be Prepared." 

I would add that undoubtedly it is through sport 
that you can best get hold of a boy. Many of our 
working-class lads have never known what it was 
to play any regular game with strict rules. This, 
in itself, is an education. When you have your 
boys running round in a spiral rally you will notice 
how few of them are light and active runners; 
probably they have never done much running. 
Nor do boys of that kind usually have discipline, 
sense of fair play, or keenness for winning simply 
for the honour of the thing without thought of 
prizes or rewards. All these come very quickly 
with a little organised play in competition with 
other Patrols or Troops. I prefer football, basket 
ball, hockey, and rounders as being the best 
games, since they are played by teams in which 
each player plays in his place under good discipline, 
where pluck, determination, unselfishness, and 
good temper are developed. I read recently in 
the Boys' Brigade Gazette the following excellent 
thought in that connection : 

"Take football seriously. If you do, it may 
prove to be one of the roads leading to the King- 
dom of Heaven. Football is almost as important 
a part of the company's training as drill and — 
my meaning will not be mistaken — as the Bible- 
class. It should be in the regular program of 
every company, only it must be football, and not 
merely playing at playing football." 

How to Train the Boy 35 

Drill on military lines has its good points, but 
to the boy it has no visible object, and is, there- 
fore, apt to pall upon him. Far preferable is the 
drill in fire brigade, rocket apparatus, trek cart, 
life-boat launching, bridge building, and other 
sets of exercises. These demand equal smart- 
ness, activity, and discipline, but the point is 
that each boy is using his head in doing his own 
particular share of the work for the success of 
the whole team. Moreover, competitions in these 
drills are of highest interest to the boys as well 
as to the onlookers. An ulterior point is that 
they can breed morale, esprit de corps, and fair 
play. It should be "the thing" for the boys 
never to bear envy or to mention unfairness 
of judging or of the opponent's tactics when 
their team is defeated, and whatever disap- 
pointment they may feel they should only show 
cordial praise for the other side. This means 
true self-discipline and unselfishness, and it pro- 
motes that good feeling all round which is so much 
needed for breaking down class prejudice in our 

Once more let me repeat, do not be appalled 
by any imaginary magnitude of the task. It will 
disappear when once you see the aim. You have 
then only to keep that always before you and 
adapt the details to suit the end. As in Peveril 
of the Peak: "It matters not much whether we 
actually achieve our highest ideals so be it that 
they are high." 

36 Aids to Scoutmastership 

The Boy 

The first step towards success in training your 
boy is to know something about boys in general 
and then about this boy in particular. 

Dr. Saleeby, in an address to the Ethical Society 
in London, said: "Public opinion is to-day realis- 
ing that the views expressed by Walt Whitman, 
George Fox, Spencer, and Ruskin are correct, viz., 
that the first requisite for a successful teacher is 
knowledge of the nature of the boy. The boy or 
girl is not a small edition of a man or woman, not a 
piece of blank paper on which the teacher should 
write, but every child has his own peculiar curi- 
osity, his inexperience, a normal mysterious frame 
of mind which needs to be tactfully helped, encour- 
aged, and moulded or modified or even suppressed." 

It is well to recall, so far as possible, what your 
ideas were when a boy yourself, and you can then 
much better understand his feelings and desires. 
It has been truly said that "there is no such thing 
as the ordinary working boy; each of them is quite 
out of the common, with abilities and weaknesses 
of his own." The Rev. H. S. Pelham, in his book, 
The Training of the Working Boy, enumerates the 
following qualities which have to be taken into 
consideration : 

Humour. — It must be remembered that a boy is 
naturally full of humour; it may be on the shallow 
or vulgar side, but he can always appreciate a joke 
and see the funny side of things. And this at once 

How to Train the Boy 37 

gives the worker with boys a pleasant and bright 
side to his work and enables him to become the 
cheery companion, instead of the taskmaster, if he 
only joins in the fun of it. 

Courage. — The poorer boy, who has a life of 
hardship, generally manages to have pluck as 
well. (Jack Corn well, like many another hero 
of the war, was a boy Scout belonging to a poor 
city Troop.) He is not by nature a grumbler, 
though later on he may become one, when his self- 
respect has died out of him and when he has been 
much in the company of "grousers." 

Confidence. — A boy is generally supremely con- 
fident in his own powers, especially the poorer 
class of boy, because in many cases he has had to 
fend for himself without the help of his parents. 
Therefore, he is rather averse to being treated as 
a child and being told to do things or how to do 
them. He would much rather try for himself, 
even though it may lead him into blunders, but it 
is just by making mistakes that a boy gains 
experience and makes his character. 

Sharpness. — The town boy is generally as sharp 
as a needle. I know in the Army how easy it was 
to train a town recruit as compared with one 
from the country, in matters appertaining to ob- 
servation and noticing things and deducing their 

Love of Excitement. — The town boy is generally 
more unsettled than his country brothers by the 
excitements of the town, whether they are, as Mr. 

38 Aids to Scoutmastership 

Pelham says, "an arrest, or a passing fire engine, 
or a good fight between two of his neighbours — 
especially if one is a woman." Cricket is too dull 
for him, he demands football or a gambling game, 
and he cannot stick at a job for more than a month 
or two because he wants change. 

Responsiveness. — The poorer boy, as a rule, gets 
very little attention at home, so that when he 
finds somebody who takes an interest in him he 
responds and follows where he is led, and it is 
here that hero-worship comes in as a great force 
for helping the Scoutmaster. 

Loyalty. — This is a feature in a boy's character 
that must inspire boundless hope. The poor are 
loyal friends to each other, and thus friendliness 
comes almost naturally to a street boy. It is the 
one duty that he understands. He may appear 
selfish outwardly, but, as a general rule, he is very 
willing under the surface to be helpful to others, 
and that is where our Scout training finds good 
soil to work upon. 

"One hears people condemning the exagger- 
ations of working men who are Socialists, while 
Labour members are treated with distrust and are 
accused of a lack of statesmanship and foresight. 
One seldom finds these critics willing to take the 
trouble to go and train the future Labour member 
and, by personal contact and mutual under- 
standing, to give him a wider outlook and a 
healthier motive." 

If one considers and studies these different 

How to Train the Boy 39 

attributes in the boy one is in a far better position 
for adapting the training to suit his different 
propensities. Such study is the first step to mak- 
ing a success of the training. I had the pleasure, 
during the past week, in my inspections, of coming 
across three boys in different centres who were 
pointed out to me as having been incorrigible 
young blackguards and hooligans until they came 
under the influence of Scouting. Their respective 
Scoutmasters had, in each case, found out the 
good points which underlay the bad ones in them, 
and having seized upon these had put the boys 
on to jobs which suited their peculiar tempera- 
ments ; and there are now these three, fine, hulking 
lads, each of them doing splendid work entirely 
transformed in character from their old selves. 
It was worth the trouble of having organised 
the Troops just to have had these single suc- 

Mr. Casson, writing in the Teacher's World, 
25th December, 191 8, thus describes that com- 
plicated work of Nature — the boy : 

"Judging from my own experience, I would 
say that boys have a world of their own — a world 
that they make for themselves; and neither the 
teacher nor the lessons are admitted to this world. 
A boy's world has its own events and standards 
and code and gossip and public opinion. 

"In spite of teachers and parents, boys remain 
loyal to their own world. They obey their own 
code, although it is quite a different code from the 

40 Aids to Scoutmastership 

one that is taught to them at home and in the 
schoolroom. They gladly suffer martyrdom at 
the hands of uncomprehending adults, rather than 
be false to their own code. 

"The code of the teacher, for instance, is in 
favour of silence and safety and decorum. The 
code of the boys is diametrically opposite. It is 
in favour of noise and risk and excitement. 

"Fun, fighting, and feeding! These are the 
three indispensable elements of the boy's world. 
These are basic. They are what boys are in 
earnest about; and they are not associated with 
teachers or school-books. 

"According to public opinion in Boydom, to 
sit for four hours a day at a desk indoors is a 
wretched waste of time and daylight. Did any- 
one ever know a boy — a normal healthy boy — who 
begged his father to buy him a desk? Or did any 
one ever know a boy, who was running about 
outdoors, go and plead with his mother to be 
allowed to sit down in the drawing-room? 

"Certainly not. A boy is not a desk animal. 
He is not a sitting-down animal. Neither is he 
a pacifist nor a believer in 'safety first,' nor a 
book-worm, nor a philosopher. 

"He is a boy — God bless him — full to the brim 
of fun and fight and hunger and daring and mis- 
chief and noise and observation and excitement. 
If he is not, he is abnormal. 

"So, if the aim of Education is to de-nature 
boys — to penalise and destroy all that is typically 

How to Train the Boy 4 1 

boyish — there is nothing to be said against the 
present methods of the average school. 

"Let the battle go on between the code of the 
teachers and the code of the boys. The boys will 
win in the future as they have in the past. A few 
will surrender, and win the scholarships, but the 
vast majority will persist in rebellion and grow 
up to be the ablest and noblest men in the 

"Is it not true, as a matter of history, that 
Edison, the inventor of a thousand patents, was 
sent home by his school-teacher with a note saying 
he was 'too stupid to be taught' ? 

"Is it not true that both Newton and Darwin, 
founders of the scientific method, were both 
regarded as blockheads by their school-teachers ? 

"Are there not hundreds of such instances, in 
which the duffer of the classroom became useful 
and eminent in later life? And does not this prove 
that our present methods fail in developing the 
aptitudes of boys ? 

"Is it not possible to treat boys as boys? Can 
we not adapt grammar and history and geography 
and arithmetic to the requirements of the boy's 
world? Can we not interpret our adult wisdom 
into the language of boyhood ? 

"Is it not the boy right, after all, in maintaining 
his own code of justice and achievement and 
adventure ? 

"Is he not putting action before learning, as he 
ought to do? Is he not really an amazing little 

42 Aids to Scoutmastership 

worker, doing things on his own, for lack of intelli- 
gent leadership? 

1 ' Would it not be vastly more to the point if the 
teachers were, for a time, to become the students, 
and to study the marvellous boy-life which they 
are at present trying vainly to curb and repress ? 

1 ' Why push against the stream, when the stream, 
after all, is running in the right direction? 

" Is it not time for us to adapt our futile methods 
and to bring them into harmony with the facts? 
Why should we persist in saying dolefully, 'Boys 
will be boys,' instead of rejoicing in the marvellous 
energy and courage and initiative of boyhood? 
And what task can be nobler and more congenial 
to a true teacher than to guide the wild forces of 
boy nature cheerily along into paths of social 


As I have said, the first step to success is to 
know your boy, but the second step is to know 
his home. It is only when you know what his 
environment is when he is away from the Club 
that you can really tell what influences to bring 
to bear upon him that may counteract the evil 
ones which assail him directly he is out of your 
sight : and that is where the schoolmaster has his 
main difficulty in educating his boys. He can 
only teach inside the school walls a modicum of the 
three R's in the same proportion to every boy 

How to Train the Boy 43 

according to his age, but he knows very little of 
the outside environment of the lad, and it is really 
upon this that depends so much of his character; 
and it is, therefore, beyond the powers of the 
schoolmaster really to develop his education in 
this particular. In school the boys are only 
taught collectively in class, there can be but very 
little individual drawing out, which is really 
education. Their only test is examination in 
knowledge and not the display of character or 
skill. Examination in itself may be bad for a 
boy. For rinding out the minimum of knowledge 
it is useful enough, but if it is to be the aim of 
his training then it is, as has been described by 
Professor Sandiford, of Toronto University, 
"cramping and degrading." The marvel is that 
schoolmasters succeed so well considering their 
difficulties, and it is here that the Scoutmaster can, 
by co-operating with them do so very much for 
them and for their pupils. 

In addition to evil surroundings in many a home, 
there are the following temptations to the bad 
which the instructor of the boy must also be 
ready to contend with. But, if he is forewarned, 
he can probably devise his methods so that the 
temptations fail to exercise an evil influence on 
his lads; and in that way their character is de- 
veloped on the best lines. 

Boyish Vices. — One of the powerful temptations 
is that of the cinema palace. The cinema has 
undoubtedly an enormous attraction for boys, 

44 Aids to Scoutmastership 

and people are constantly cudgelling their brains 
how to stop it. But it is one of those things which 
would be very difficult to stop even if it were 
altogether desirable. The point, rather, is how to 
utilize it to the best advantage for our ends. To 
stop it one would have to provide some counter- 
attraction, and to do this would be by no means 
easy. On the principle of meeting any difficulty 
by siding with it and edging it in one's own direc- 
tion, we should endeavour to see what there is 
of value in the cinema and what possibilities lie 
before it, and should then utilize it for the purpose 
of training the boy. No doubt it can be a power- 
ful instrument for evil by suggestion, if not prop- 
erly supervised ; but steps have been taken in the 
chief cities to insure a proper censorship, and 
perhaps the best way of doing this is where the 
citizens themselves are asked to report any films 
which they do not consider desirable for children 
to see, and where three such complaints made 
against a picture palace, if properly founded, will 
endanger its licence. But, as it can be a power 
for evil, so it can just as well be made a power for 
good. There are excellent films now on Natural 
History and Nature Study, which give a child a 
far better idea of the processes of Nature than 
its own observation can do, and certainly far 
better than any amount of lessons on the subject. 
History can be taught through the eye, as is 
already being done by such films as Queen Vic- 
toria's Sixty Years a Queen, The Life of Charles /., 

How to Train the Boy 45 

and many others of the kind. Then there are 
dramas of the pathetic or heroic kind, and others 
of genuine fun, humour, and laughter. Again, 
there are more of them bringing what is bad into 
condemnation and ridicule. There is no doubt 
that this teaching through the eye can be adapted 
so as to have a wonderfully good effect through the 
children's own inclination and interest in the cin- 
ema palace. 

Juvenile smoking and its destruction to health; 
gambling on football and races, and all the dis- 
honesty that it brings in its train; the evils of 
drink; of loafing with girls; uncleanness, etc., can 
only be corrected by the Scoutmaster who knows 
the usual environment of his lads. 

It cannot be done by forbidding or punishment, 
but by substituting something at least equally 
attractive but good in its effects. 

Juvenile crime is not naturally born in the boy, 
but is largely due either to the spirit of adventure 
that is in him, to his own stupidity, or to his lack of 
discipline, according to the nature of the individual. 

Natural lying is another very prevalent fault 
amongst lads; it does not come entirely from the 
idea of evading punishment, but almost as a 
habit, for when a slum boy is asked a question his 
first impulse is to tell a lie, possibly to find out 
what you are driving at by asking the question. 
This is unfortunately a prevailing disease all over 
the world. You meet it particularly amongst 
uncivilised tribes, as well as in the civilised coun- 

46 Aids to Scoutmastership 

tries of Europe, and perhaps it is a distinguishing 
characteristic about the Englishman that he, of 
all nations, is less prone to this habit and may be 
most easily cured of it, if only it is taken in time. 
Truth-speaking, and its consequent elevation of a 
man into being a reliable authority, makes all the 
difference in his character and in the character of 
the nation. Therefore, it is incumbent upon us 
to do all we can to raise the tone of honour and 
truth-speaking amongst the lads. 

Club and Camp 

The main antidote to a bad environment is 
naturally the substitution of a good one, and this 
is best done through the clubroom and the camp 
for Boy Scouts. By clubroom I do not mean half- 
an-hour's drill once a week in a big schoolroom lent 
for the occasion — which has so often appeared to 
to be the aim of those dealing with boys — but a 
real place which the boys feel is their own, even 
though it may be a cellar or an attic; some place 
to which they can resort every evening, if need be, 
and find congenial work and amusement, and a 
bright and happy atmosphere. If a Scoutmaster 
can only arrange this he will have done a very 
good work in providing the right environment for 
some of his lads which will be the best antidote for 
the poison that otherwise would creep into their 
minds and characters. 

At the same time, one of our most experienced 

How to Train the Boy 47 

Boys' Club men, the late C. E. Russell, was not in 
favour of them unless they were run by exceptional 
men, and on lines that gave the members plenty oj 
strenuous and varied activity. 

Then the occasional camp (and this should be 
as frequent as possibly can be managed) is a still 
further and even more potent antidote than the 
clubroom. The open and breezy atmosphere and 
the comradeship of continued association under 
canvas, in the field, and round the campfire 
breathes the very best of spirit amongst the lads, 
and gives the Scoutmaster a far better opportunity 
than any other of getting hold of his boys and of 
impressing his personality upon them. 

The Scoutmaster's Duty 

Success in training the boy, as I have said before, 
largely depends upon the Scoutmaster's own per- 
sonal example. It is easy to become the hero as 
well as the elder brother of the boy. We are apt, 
as we grow up, to forget what a store of hero wor- 
ship is in the boy. Personally, I happen to 
remember it by the fact that when at school I had 
a fight with another boy because I did not share 
his everlasting hero worship of Henry Irving. It 
was not on the question of his ability as an actor 
that we differed, but as regards his physical per- 
fection down to his finger-tips. It was actually 
on the question as to whether he had taper fingers 
or not that we quarrelled. 

48 Aids to Scoutmastership 

The Scoutmaster who is a hero to his boys holds 
a powerful lever to their development, but at the 
same time brings a great responsibility on himself. 
They are quick enough to see the smallest char- 
acteristic about him, whether it be a virtue or a 
vice. His mannerisms become theirs, the amount 
of courtesy he shows, his irritations, his sunny 
happiness, or his impatient glower, his willing self- 
discipline or his occasional moral lapses — all are 
not only noticed, but adopted by his followers. 

Therefore, to get them to carry out the Scout 
Law and all that underlies it, the Scoutmaster him- 
self should scrupulously carry out its professions in 
every detail of his life. With scarcely a word of 
instruction his boys will follow him. 

Loyalty to the Movement 

Let him remember that in addition to his duty 
to his boys the Scoutmaster has a duty also to the 
Movement as a whole. Our aim in making boys 
into good citizens is partly for their own individual 
benefit and partly for the benefit of the country, 
that it may have a virile trusty race of citizens 
whose amity and sense of "playing the game'* 
will keep it united internally and at peace with its 
neighbours abroad. Just now we have before us, 
as an object lesson, the danger of internal dis- 
sension, where exaggeration of party politics and 
disregard of the wants of others are making for 
social disruption, and thus causing commercial 

How to Train the Boy 49 

depression and financial panics to the weakening 
of the nation in its progress and prosperity. 

Charged with the duty of teaching self-abne- 
gation and discipline by their own practice of it, 
Commissioners and Scoutmasters must necessarily 
be above petty personal feeling, and must be large- 
minded enough to subject their own personal views 
to the higher policy of the whole. Theirs is to 
teach their boys to "play the game," each in his 
place like bricks in a wall, by doing the same 
themselves. Each has his allotted sphere of work, 
and the better he devotes himself to that, the 
better his Scouts will respond to his training. 
Then it is only by looking to the higher aims of the 
Movement, or to the effects of measures ten years 
hence that one can see details of to-day in their 
proper proportion. Where a man cannot con- 
scientiously take the line required, his one manly 
course is to put it straight to his Commissioner or 
to me, and if we cannot meet his views, then to 
leave the work. He goes into it in the first place 
with his eyes open, and it is scarcely fair if after- 
ward, because he finds the details do not suit him, 
he complains that it is the fault of the Executive. 
Fortunately, in our Movement, by decentrali- 
sation and giving a free hand to the local authori- 
ties, we avoid much of the red tape which has 
been the cause of irritation and complaint in so 
many other organisations. We are also fortunate 
in having a body of Scoutmasters who are large- 
minded in their outlook and in their loyalty to the 

50 Aids to Scoutmastership 

Movement as a whole. This feature has been very 
abundantly proved at recent conferences, and has 
given me a new feeling of confidence and hope 
towards tackling the great future which lies before 
our Movement. 

A man dared to tell me the other day that he 
was the happiest man in the world ! I had to tell 
him of one who is still happier. You need not 
suppose that either of us in attaining this happi- 
ness had never had difficulties to contend with. 
Just the opposite. It is the satisfaction of having 
successfully faced difficulties and borne pin-pricks 
that gives completeness to the pleasure of having 
overcome them. Don't expect your life to be a 
bed of roses ; there would be no fun in it if it were. 
So, in dealing with the Scouts, you are bound to 
meet with disappointments and setbacks. Be 
patient: more Britons ruin their work or careers 
through want of patience than do so through drink 
or other vices. You will have to bear patiently 
with irritating criticisms and red tape bonds to 
some extent; but your reward will come. The 
satisfaction which comes of having tried to do 
one's duty at the cost of self-denial, and of having 
developed characters in the boys which will give 
them a different status for life, brings such a 
reward as cannot well be set down in writing. 
The fact of having worked to prevent the recur- 
rence of those evils which, if allowed to run on, 
would soon be rotting the nation, gives a man the 
solid comfort that he has done something, at any 

How to Train the Boy 


rate, for his country, however humble may be his 


Subject I. — How to Train the Boy 

Subject. Study and Practice 

ist Week. — Present 
County Council 

2D Week. — Public 
School Life. 

3D Week. — Environ- 

4TH Week. — Ad- 
ministrative Dis- 

Visit Primary and Secondary 
Schools. Watch methods of 

Visit Technical Schools. 

Visit Evening Continuation 

Visit a Training Ship. 

Visit one of the great Public 
Schools, and watch the me- 
thod of study, the organiza- 
tion of games and athletics, 
the voluntary intelligence 
training by debating socie- 
ties, laboratories, etc., fag- 

Visit the slums. 

Study the home life and envi- 
ronment of boys outside the 
school; the attractions, e.g., 
cinema, football, cheap liter- 
ature, etc. How to counter- 
act or to utilize these. 

Visit, if possible, Scout Head- 
quarters to see how the Move- 
ment is administered. Also 

52 Aids to Scoutmastership 

the administration offices of 
any big organization — look 
into its discipline, routine, 
and methods. 
Week-end. If possible, camp with a Patrol 

or Troop of boys. Study 
each boy in turn. Find his 
individual bent and all about 
his environment. Plan to 
yourself how to develop the 
good in these or what to 
substitute in order to drive 
out the bad in them. 

Character Training through Scouting 

" A NATION owes its success, not so much to 

A\ its strength in armaments, as to the 
amount of character in its citizens." 

"For a man to be successful in life, character is 
more essential than erudition." 

So character is of first value whether for a 
nation or for the individual. 

Erudition — that is, reading, writing, and arith- 
metic — is taught in the schools; but where is the 
more important quality, character, taught? No- 
where in particular. There is no authorised train- 
ing for children in character. Yet, if it is going to 
make a man's career for him, it ought to be de- 
veloped in him before he starts out; while he is 
still a boy and receptive. Character cannot be 
drilled into a boy. The germ of it is already in 
him, and needs to be drawn out and expanded. 

Character is very generally the result of environ- 
ment or surroundings. For example, take two 
small boys, twins if you like. Teach them the 
same lessons in school, but give them entirely 


54 Aids to Scoutmastership 

different surroundings, companions, and homes 
outside the school. Put one under a kindly, 
encouraging mother, among clean and straight 
playfellows, where he is trusted on his honour to 
carry out rules of life and so on. On the other 
hand, take the second boy and let him loaf in the 
slums, with a filthy home, among foul-mouthed, 
thieving, discontented companions. Is he likely 
to grow up with the same amount of character as 
his twin? 

There are thousands of boys being wasted daily 
to our country through being left to become char- 
acterless, and, therefore, useless wasters, a misery 
to themselves and an eyesore and a danger to the 

They could be saved if only the right surround- 
ings or environment were given to them at the 
receptive time of their lives. And there are many 
thousands of others who may not be placed on 
quite so low a level (for there are wasters in every 
class of life), but who would be all the better men 
and more valuable to the country and more 
satisfactory to themselves if they could be per- 
suaded, at the right age, to develop their char- 

Here, then, lies the most important aim in 
the Boy Scout training — to educate; not to in- 
struct, mind you, but to educate, that is, to draw 
out the boy to learn for himself, of his own 
desire, the things that tend to build up character 
in him. 

Character 55 

One Reason why a Troop should not Exceed 

I have said in Scouting for Boys that so far as my 
own experience went I could not train individually 
more than sixteen boys — but allowing for my hav- 
ing only half the capacity of the experienced boy- 
worker, the Scoutmaster, I allowed for his taking 
on thirty- two. 

Men talk of having fine Troops of 60 or even 
100 — Cadet Companies even run to 120 — and 
their officers tell me that their boys are equally 
well trained as in smaller Troops. I express 
admiration ("admiration" literally translated 
means "surprise"), and I don't believe them. 

Why worry about individual training? they 
ask. Because it is the only way by which you can 
educate. You can instruct any number of boys, 
a thousand at a time if you have a loud voice and 
attractive methods or disciplinary means. But 
that is not training — it is not education. 

Education is the thing that counts in building 
character and in making men. 

The incentive to perfect himself, when properly 
instilled into the individual, brings about his active 
effort on the line most suitable to his temperament 
and powers. 

It is not the slightest use to preach the Scout 
Laws or to give them out as orders to a crowd of 
boys: each mind requires its special exposition of 
them and the ambition to carry them out. 


Aids to Scoutmastership 

That is where the personality and ability of the 
Scoutmaster come in. 


Let us consider a few of the qualities, moral and 
mental, that go to make character, and then see 
how we can get the boy to develop these for him- 
self through Scouting. 

Qualities that 

Attributes which they 

See Scout 

Scouting practices 

make character. 



which inculcate them. 

(a) Reverence 

Loyalty to God. 


Good turns. 

Duty to neigh- 


Nature study. 

bour. Respect 


" Missioner's" 

for others. 

Law No. 3. 


(b) Sense of 



Scout Law and 



Promise. Re- 
sponsibility given 
to boy. 

(c) Self- 

Obedience. Thrift. 


Scout Law. Camp 


Sobriety. Good 


etiquette. Cere- 

temper. Purity. 

monial drill. 
Fire brigade. 
Trek cart. Sav- 
ings bank. Non- 

(d) Unselfish- 

Chivalry. Kindli- 

3, 4, 5, 6 

Good turns. 


ness. Self-sacri- 

Friend to ani- 

fice. Patriotism. 

mals. Life sav- 

Loyalty, Justice. 

ing. Fair-play 
games. Marks- 

(e) Self- 

Handiness. Abil- 


Sea Scouting. 


ity. Hope. 

Swimming. Lone 

Pluck. Dogged- 

Scouting. First 


aid. Camping. 

(f) Intelli- 

Observation. De- 


Tracking. Map- 


duction. Using 

ping. Reporting. 

wits. Memory. 

Signalling. Am- 



Qualities that 

Attributes which they 

See Scout 

Scouting practices 

make character. 



which inculcate them. 

(g) Enjoyment 

Perception of 

6, 8 

Nature study. 

of Life. 

beauty in Na- 

Music. Drawing. 

Sense of 

ture and art. 



(h) Energy. 

Ambition. Health. 

8, IO 

Hobbies. Handi- 


crafts. Pioneer- 


ing. Games. Ex- 


ercises. Food 
and hygiene, and 

This list practically includes all that is taught in 
Scouting. Therefore, the whole of Scouting is 
practically directed to character-making, as the 
chief step to good citizenship. 

But the qualities, which go to make a good 
citizen, are, as before pointed out : 

1. Character. 

2. Physical Health. 

3. Handicraft for Making a Career. 

4. Service to Others. 

So that from the table we may take out (a) 
and (d), which will more properly be dealt with 
when we come to the subject of Service to Others; 
also (c) and (h) , which will apply when we come to 
Health and to Making a Career. 

That leaves us b, e,f, g to consider here — namely : 

(b) Sense of Honour. 
(e) Self-reliance. 

5$ Aids to Scoutmastership 

(/) Intelligence. 

(g) Enjoyment of Life. 

(b) Sense of Honour 

Trustworthiness inculcated in the Boy Scout by 
Responsibility, Scout Promise, Scout Law, Giving 
Responsible Charge. 

The Scout Law is the foundation on which the 
whole of Scout Training rests. 

Its various clauses must be fully explained and 
made clear to the boys by practical illustrations of 
its application to their everyday life. 

There is no teaching to compare with example. 
If the Scoutmaster himself conspicuously carries 
out the Scout Law in all his doings, the boys will 
be quick to follow his lead. 

This example comes with all the more force if 
the Scoutmaster himself takes the Scout Promise, 
in the same way as his Scouts. 

The first law, namely, A Scout's honour is to be 
trusted, is the one on which the whole of the Scout's 
future behaviour and discipline hangs. So it 
should be very carefully explained, as a first step, 
by the Scoutmaster to his boys before taking the 
Scout Promise. 

The investiture of the Scout is purposely made 
into something of a ceremony, since a little ritual 
of that kind if carried out with strict solemnity, 
impresses the boy; and considering the grave 
importance of the occasion, it is only right that he 

Character 59 

should be impressed as much as possible. Then it 
is of great importance that the Scout should peri- 
odically renew his knowledge of the law. Boys 
are apt to be forgetful, and it should never be 
allowed that a boy who has made his solemn 
promise to carry out the Scout Law should, at 
any time, not be able to say what the law is. 

Once the Scout understands what his honour is 
and has, by his initiation, been put upon his hon- 
our, the Scoutmaster must entirely trust him to 
do things. You must show him by your action that 
you consider him a responsible being. Give him 
charge of something, whether temporary or per- 
manent, and expect him to carry out his charge 
faithfully. Don't keep prying to see how he does 
it. Let him do it his own way, let him come a 
howler over it if need be, but in any case leave 
him alone and trust him to do his best. 

Giving responsibility is the key to success with 
boys, especially with the rowdiest and most diffi- 
cult boys. 

The object of the Patrol System is mainly to give 
real responsibility to as many of the boys as possi- 
ble with a view to developing their character. If 
the Scoutmaster gives his Patrol Leader real 
power, expects a great deal from him, and leaves 
him a free hand in carrying out his work, he will 
have done more for that boy's character-expansion 
than any amount of school-training could ever do. 
And the Court of Honour is a most valuable aid 
to this same end if fully made use of. 

60 Aids to Scoutmastership 

(e) Self-Reliance 

Handiness. Ability. Hope. Pluck. Doggedly 

By Means of First-Class Scouts' Tests. Sea 
Scouting. Swimming. First Aid. Lone Scouting. 

The tests for First-Class Scouts were laid down 
with the idea that a boy, who proved himself 
equipped to that extent, might reasonably be 
considered as grounded in the qualities which go to 
make a good, manly citizen. 

He could not but feel himself a more capable 
fellow than before, and, therefore, he should have 
that confidence in himself which will give him the 
hope and pluck in time of stress in the struggle of 
life, which will encourage him to keep his end up, 
and to stick it out till he achieves success. 

Handiness and use of wits are most easily 
developed by the practice of boat handling ; germs 
of pluck, of making up the mind quickly, of cool- 
ness and activity, of ready obedience to orders — 
all come in, in doing the work of Sea Scouts. 

First Aid or Fire Brigade work, or Trek Cart or 
Bridge Building are of value for handiness and use 
of wits, since the boy, while working in co-opera- 
tion with the others, is responsible for his own 
separate part of the job. 

Swimming has its educational value — mental, 
moral, and physical— in giving you a sense of 

Character 61 

mastery over an element, and of power of saving 
life, and in the development of wind and limb. 

When training the South African Constabulary 
I used to send the men out in pairs to carry out 
long distance rides of two or three hundred miles 
to teach them to fend for themselves and to use 
their intelligence. 

But when I had a somewhat dense pupil he was 
sent out alone, without another to lean upon, to 
find his own way, make his own arrangements for 
feeding himself and his horse, and for drawing up 
the report of his expedition unaided. This was 
the best training of all in self-reliance and intelli- 
gence, and this principle is one which I can con- 
fidently recommend to Scoutmasters in training 
their Scouts. 

Of all the schools the camp is far and away the 
best for teaching boys the desired character-attri- 
butes. The environment is healthy, the boys are 
elated and keen, all the interests of life are round 
them, and the Scoutmaster has them permanently 
for the time, day and night, under his hand, 
absorbing the principles which he puts before 
them. A week of this life is worth six months of 
theoretical teaching in the club-room, valuable 
though that may be. 

As the boy becomes conscious of no longer being 
a Tenderfoot, but of being a responsible and 
trusted individual with power to do things, he 
becomes self-reliant. Hope and ambition begin 
to dawn for him. 

62 Aids to Scoutmastership 

Therefore, it is most advisable that Scout- 
masters who have not had much experience in that 
line should study the subject of the camp in its 
various bearings. 

Its cost, including railway fares, transport of 

stores, equipment, etc. 
Its locality, including facilities for Scouting 

games and exercises, handiness to doctor, 

cover in event of bad weather, etc. 
Its site as regards healthiness, water supply, 

sanitary arrangements, etc. 
Its management as regards catering, cooking, 

camp routine, and discipline, program of 

work, campfire amusements and talks, camp 

games, etc. 

(/) Intelligence 

Observation. Deduction. Use of Wits. 

By Means of Tracking. Reading Sign. Finding 
Way by Map. Landmarks. Heights and Distances. 
Mapping. Reporting. Signalling. Ambulance. 
News of the Day. Plays. 

Observation and deduction are the basis of all 
knowledge and can be taught directly through 
tracking and sign-reading (see Scouting for Boys, 
Chapter IV.), and by the reproduction of Sherlock 
Holmes stories in scenes. 

The general intelligence and quickwittedness of 
the boys can very considerably be educated by 

Character 63 

their finding the way with a map, noticing land- 
marks, judging heights and distances, and noticing 
and reporting all details of people, vehicles, cattle, 
etc. Signalling sharpens their wits, develops 
their eyesight, and encourages them to study and 
to concentrate their minds. Ambulance instruc- 
tion has also similar educative value. 

Winter evenings and wet days can be usefully 
employed in the clubroom by the Scoutmaster 
reading the principal items of news in the day's 
newspaper, illustrating them by map, etc. The 
getting-up of plays and pageants bearing on the 
history of the place are also excellent means of 
getting the boys to study, and to express them- 
selves without self-consciousness. 

(g) Enjoyment of Life 

Development of Humour. Appreciation of Wit 
rather than Buffoonery. Higher Thought. Appreci- 
ation of Beauty. Wonder of Science: Art, Liter- 
ature, Music, Poetry. 

Why is Nature Lore considered a Key Activity in 
Scouting ? 

That is a question on which hangs the difference 
between Scout work and that of the ordinary 
Boys' Club or Brigade. 

It is easily answered in the phrase quoted, I 
think by Sam Harrison, in an excellent article in 
the Scout Headquarters Gazette. "We want to 
teach our boys not merely how to get a living, but 

64 Aids to Scoutmastership 

how to live" — that is, in the higher sense, how to 
enjoy life. 

Nature lore, as I have probably insisted only too 
often, gives the best means of opening out the 
minds and thoughts of boys, and at the same time, 
if the point is not lost sight of by their trainer, it 
gives them the power of appreciating beauty in 
nature, and consequently in art, such as leads them 
to a higher enjoyment of life. 

This is in addition to what I have previously 
advocated in Nature study, namely, the realis- 
ation of God the Creator through His wondrous 
work, which when coupled with active performance 
of His will in service for others constitutes the 
concrete foundation of religion. 

I was last week in the sitting-room of a friend 
who had just died, and lying on the table beside his 
abandoned pipe and tobacco pouch was a book by 
Richard Jefleries — Field and Hedgerow, in which 
a page was turned down which said: "The con- 
ception of moral good is not altogether satisfying. 
The highest form known to us at present is pure 
unselfishness, the doing of good not for any reward 
now or hereafter, nor for the completion of any 
imaginary scheme. That is the best we know, 
but how unsatisfactory ! An outlet is needed more 
fully satisfying to the heart's inmost desire than is 
afforded by any labour of self-abnegation. It 
must be something in accord with the perception 
of beauty and of an ideal. Personal virtue is not 
enough. Though I cannot name the ideal good 

Character 65 

it seems to me that it will in some way be closely 
associated with the ideal beauty of Nature." 

In other words, one may suggest that happiness 
is a matter of inner conscience and outward sense 
working in combination. It is to be got where 
the conscience as well as the senses together are 
satisfied. If the above quoted definition be true, 
the converse is at least equally certain — namely, 
that the appreciation of beauty cannot bring 
happiness if your conscience is not at rest. So 
that if we want our boys to gain happiness in life we 
must put into them the practice of doing good to 
their neighbours, and in addition, the appreciation 
of the beautiful in Nature. 

The shortest step to this last is through Nature 

. . . books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything. 

Among the mass of poorer boys their eyes have 
never been opened, and to the Scoutmaster is 
given the joy of bringing about this worthwhile 

Once the germ of woodcraft has entered into 
the mind of a boy, observation, memory, and,, 
deduction develop automatically and become part 1 
of his character. They remain whatever other 
pursuits he may afterward take up. 

&s the wonders of nature are unfolded to the o 

66 Aids to Scoutmastership 

young mLA, so too its beauties can be pointed 
out and gradually become recognised. When 
appreciation of beauty is once given a place in the 
mind, it grows automatically in the same way as 
observation, and brings joy in the greyest of 

If I may diverge again, talking as above of Sam 
Harrison, it was a dark, raw, foggy day when last 
I met him in the big gloomful station at Birming- 
ham. We were hustled along in a throng of grimy 
workers and muddy, travel-stained soldiers. Yet, 
as we pushed through the crowd, I started and 
looked round, went on, looked round again, and 
finally had a good eye-filling stare before I went 
on. I don't suppose my companions had realised 
it, but I had caught a gleam of sunshine in that 
murky hole such as gave a new pleasure to the 
day. It was just a nurse in brown uniform with 
gorgeous red-gold hair and a big bunch of yellow 
and brown chrysanthemums m her arms. Noth- 
ing very wonderful you say. No, but for those 
who have eyes to see, these gleams are there even 
in the worst of gloom. 

It is too common an idea that boys are unable to 
appreciate beauty and poetry; but I remember 
once some boys were being shown a picture of a 
stormy landscape, of which Ruskin had written 
that there was only one sign of peace in the whole 
wind-torn scene. One of the lads readily pointed 

Character 67 

to a spot of blue peaceful sky that was apparent 
through a rift in the driving wrack of clouds. 

Poetry also appeals in a way that it is difficult 
to account for, and when the beautiful begins to 
catch hold, the young mind seems to yearn to 
express itself in something other than everyday 

Some of the best poetry can of course be found 
in prose writing, but it is more generally associ- 
ated with rhythm and rhyme. Rhyme, however, 
is apt to become the great effort with the aspiring 
young poet, and so you will get the most awful 
doggerel thrust upon you in your efforts to encour- 
age poetry. 

Switch them off doggerel if you can. It is far 
too prevalent, when even our National Anthem 
itself amounts to it. I have a lovely "poem" 
amongst my many treasures which is the acme 
of striving for rhyme at the expense of everything 
else; and the author of it wrote to explain that, 
though I might think he was a poet (which was 
very far from my imagination) , he was in reality 
only a coachman in Upper Tooting. 

I love good doggerel too — in its place: 

Grandma's fallen down a drain. 
Couldn't get her up again. 
Now she's floating out to sea — 
Thus we save her funeral fee. 

Rhythm is a form of art which comes natur- 
ally even to the untrained mind, whether it be 

68 Aids to Scoutmastership 

employed in poetry or music or in body exercises. 
It gives a balance and order which has its natural 
appeal even and especially among those closest 
to nature — savages. In the form of music it is of 
course most obvious and universal. The Zulu 
War Song when sung by four or five thousand 
warriors is an example of rhythm, in music, 
poetry, and bodily movement combined. 

The enjoyment of rendering or of hearing music 
is common to all the human family. The song 
as a setting to words enables the soul to give itself 
expression which, when adequately done, brings 
pleasure both to the singer and to his hearer. 

Through his natural love of music the boy can 
be linked up with poetry and higher sentiment as 
by a natural and easy transition. It opens a ready 
means to the Scoutmaster of teaching happiness to 
his lads and at the same time of raising the tone 
of their thoughts. 

Our Artist's Badge is devised, under a rather 
misleading name I fear, to lead boys on to express 
their ideas graphically from their own observation 
or imagination without attempting thereby to be 
or to imitate artists. By drawing or modelling, 
many a careless young soul has become interested, 
and finally amenable to ideas of beauty in nature 
and art. 



Subject II — Character Training 

ist Week. — Scout Promise 
and Law. 

2D Week. — Map reading. 
Nature study. Observa- 
tion and deduction. 

3D Week. — Educational 
value of camping. 

4TH Week. — Camp man- 
agement, catering, financ- 
ing, and discipline. 

Instruction in Details 

Ceremony of enrolling a 
Scout. Practical ex- 
amples of teaching 
and impressing the 
Scout Law. 

Finding way by map. 
Noticing landmarks. 
Estimating heights 
and distances. Track- 

Camp pitching. Camp 

Signalling. Signal fires. 
Despatch running. 
Whistle calls. 

Week-end Camp. — Tramp out, finding way by 
map. Noticing landmarks, pitch tent, cook food, 
salute flag, camp prayers. Practise instruction learnt 
during previous four weeks. 


THE value of good health and strength in the 
making of a career and in the enjoyment of 
life is incalculable. That is pretty obvious. 
As a matter of education one may take it to be of 
greater value than "book-learning" and almost as 
valuable as " character." Yet in our present 
system of education in Great Britain it comes a 
very long way after "book-learning," while "char- 
acter" is left out altogether. 

Our system is exactly upside down. 

Order of importance for Order laid down for 

making a career. British education. 

Character. Knowledge. 

Health. Health. 

Knowledge. Character. 

Education authorities and school-teachers gen- 
erally recognise this and are doing their best, 
under the circumstances, until the right system 
comes round for them, as it will do — some day. 
Meantime, we in the Scout Movement can do a 
great deal to help the school authorities by giving 


Health and Physical Development 7 1 

to the boys some of the training in health and 
personal hygiene which is so essential to their 
efficiency as citizens. Our great aim is to show 
the lad the best way of developing his strength 
and health, and what errors he should avoid, and 
to teach him to be Personally Responsible to 
Himself for His Health. 

Commander Coote is doing a great work in the 
Royal Navy by formulating a practical method of 
physical education on a recreational and moral 
basis. His scheme goes to the root of things, and 
for its proper development demands a steady 
course of study on the part of teachers such as 
would take them some two or three years to carry 

Our own line of training is on similar ideals to 
his, though it may be a long way behind — so much 
so that when two or three years are required to 
train a teacher, two or three days (or even hours) 
would suffice with us. Indeed, they've got to 
because our average Scoutmaster is not one who 
can afford much time for deep study of the subject. 
But if he carries in his mind a clear idea of what he 
is aiming for I am certain that he can do a very 
great deal towards developing health and strength 
in his boys. And so I put this diagram (see p. 72) 
before him for easy reference as to our aims and 
methods in the Scout training towards health. 

In Chapter VI. of Scouting for Boys I have dealt 
with this subject, and I would specially commend 
the introductory remarks of that chapter to close 



a.a« - 3 






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Games Drill, Row 
Rocket ing 


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— p a a»n 














. Q 





save lii 
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(f) z 






■ E3 










■ and 






, etc 


Box- Swim 
ing ming 



-^ c3 







for w 








o fc 


m o 



W o 

Ill's o 

1 T 
yes, Te 

ose, a 





I balan 
[ mind, 



through pe 




01 . 

— 111 





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ess in caree 
1 enjoyment 
of life. 


LU-g ca 




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3 « 2 




, etc., W 










Health and Physical Development 73 

study by the Scoutmasters as showing the very 
urgent national need for such education. They 
are unfortunately as true to-day as they were 
when first written ten years ago. The hygienic 
questions of food, clothing, sobriety, cleanliness, 
and chastity are touched upon, and also the minor 
but important details of development, and care of 
body, eyes, ears, nose, teeth, nails, etc. But I 
will in these notes give a few more ideas for con- 
sideration on these points. 

I feel that, thanks to their innate love of sport, 
a great deal of the physical training is not difficult 
to get into practice among the boys. And I know 
that young men of the present day are inclined to 
treat their bodies to a good deal of physicking, so 
that it should not be a hopeless task to get them 
also to listen to ideas on that subject. 

I would further commend again to the attention 
of Scoutmasters the book of lectures entitled The 
Scoutmasters' Training Course (London), of which 
four bear on the subject of this paper, viz. : 

"Continence," by Dr. Schofield. "Physical 
Exercises," by Dr. Wallis. "Health and Food," 
by Eustace Miles. "Swimming," by H. R. 

And The Scoutmasters' Training Course {2d. se- 

Training the Boy's Character, by Alex. Devine. 
Also that excellent book by Dr. Schofield and Dr. 
Vaughan-Jackson, What a Boy Should Know 

74 Aids to Scoutmastership 

And those who can get the Annual Report, 
by Sir George Newman, Chief Medical Officer 
of the Board of Education, will find it interesting 
and suggestive. 

Now, in continuation of my previous method of 
tabulating the points of the subjects to show how 
they can be got at through Scouting, I submit the 
following : 


Scouting practices 

Qualities to be 

Attributes which 

Scout Law 

by which they are 


they include. 

or badges. 


(c) i. Self- 

Temperance. Con- 

Scout Law 

N o n-s m o k i n g . 




Temperate feed- 
ing. M i d-d a y 
sleep in camp. 
Games (e.g., 
Walking tight 
rope). Team 

(g) ii. Energy. 

Physical develop- 

Scout Law 

Physical exercises. 

ment. Health. 


C o mp arati ve 

Personal hygiene 



and sanitation 


card. Swimming. 

in home and 


Signalling. Boat- 

camp. Cheeri- 


ing. Personal 

ness. Over- 


cleanliness. Food. 

coming physical 


Special games 

defects (e.g., 


and competitions 

cripples, blind, 


(e.g., spotty face, 

mutes, etc.). 

ist Class 

kill that fly, scout 


pace, wrist push- 
ing, jiu-jitsu, feet 
wrestling, etc.). 

Health and Physical Development 75 

C3 Men and an Ai Empire 

Physical education is not the same as physical train- 
ing, but is badly needed to remedy the above 
weakness in our nation. 

In recruiting our great modern army, recruiting 
returns have shown what has consistently been 
pointed out in Scouting for Boys — namely, that 
there is an immense percentage of unfit men among 
our citizens who, with reasonable care and under- 
standing, could have been healthy efficient beings. 

Sir George Newman, in his most valuable report 
on the health of our school children, shows that one 
in every five suffers from defects that will prevent 
him from being efficient in after-life — defects, 
mind you, which might have been prevented. 

These returns are immensely suggestive, and 
point at once to the need and the remedy; if we 
took the boys in time tens of thousands could be 
saved every year to become strong and capable 
citizens instead of dragging out a miserable semi- 
efficient existence. 

It is a matter of national as well as individual 

There is consequently much talk of developing 
the physical training of the rising generation on a 
much more general basis, and in this direction lies 
a tremendous opening for our work. 

But I want to warn Scoutmasters against being 
led by this cry on to the wrong tack. 

You know from our diagram on page 23 how 

76 Aids to Scoutmastership 

and why Character and Physical Health are our two 
main aims in Scouting, and also the steps by which 
we endeavour to gain them. 

But bear in mind physical health is not neces- 
sarily the result of physical drill. 

With a number of our men coming back from the 
Army where they have gone through the excellent 
scheme of Swedish drill and other forms of physical 
training, and have seen its practical effects upon 
themselves and on weedy fellow-recruits, they will 
necessarily feel that this is the very thing that is 
wanted in Scout training, and that by their experi- 
ence they are the very men to apply it. 

I would say hang on for a minute and think. 
They would be quite right up to a point. 

The physical training given in the Army has 
been carefully thought out, and is excellent for 
those who have never had proper physical develop- 
ment as boys. It is suited to the more formed 
muscular system of the man, and soldiers improve 
tremendously under this intensive form of training. 

But it is entirely artificial, designed to make up 
for what has not been naturally acquired. 

God didn't invent physical "jerks." The Zulu 
warrior, splendid specimen though he is, never 
went through Swedish drill. Even the ordinary 
well-to-do British boy, who has played football 
and hockey, or who has run his paper-chases 
regularly and has kept himself fit by training 
exercises between whiles, seldom needs physical 
drill to develop him afterwards. 

Health and Physical Development 77 

It is good open-air games and healthy feeding 
coupled with adequate rest which bring to the boy 
health and strength in a natural and not an artificial 

Nobody will disagree with this. It is quite 
simple in theory, but in its practice we find some 
few difficulties to overcome. 

Your city boy or the factory hand who is at work 
all day cannot get out to play games in the open. 
The outdoor worker and country boy should by 
right have a better chance since he lives more in the 
open air, but it is seldom that even a country boy 
knows how to play a game, or even how to run! 

When inspecting Scouts, Commissioners make 
a point of seeing them run in single file, when time 
and space allow, in addition to merely walking 
down the line themselves to look at the boys' faces 
and their dress. 

They do this in order to judge to what extent 
the lads have been physically trained by their 
Scoutmaster. The running tells its own tale. 

It is perfectly astonishing to see how few boys 
are able to run. 

The natural, easy, light step comes only with 
the practice of running. Without it the poor 
boy develops either the slow heavy plod of the 
clod-hopper or the shuffling paddle of the city 
man (and what a lot of character is conveyed in 
the gait of a man!). 

Organised Games. — The practice of running is 
best inculcated through games and sport. 

78 Aids to Scoutmastership 

A usual objection raised is that the poorer boys 
don't care about games — can't play them. 

This is mainly because they have never been 
taught or encouraged. They very soon get keen 
when shown how, and through good team games 
you can not only train them physically but morally 
as well. 

The foreigner's criticism of Englishmen is that 
they make games their fetish. 

With the public schoolboy this is to a certain 
extent true, and if you look at it from the purely 
physical point of view, the result is not so bad. 

But with his poorer brother the fetish takes the 
form of looking on and betting on games. 

This is where we in the Scouts can come in. 
We can show him how to be a player of games, and 
so to enjoy life and at the same time to strengthen 
his physical as well as his moral fibre. 

Football, baseball, basketball, paper-chases, 
swimming and Scout games are to my mind the 
best form of physical education, because most 
of them bring in moral education as well, and most 
of them are inexpensive and do not require well- 
kept grounds, apparatus, etc. 

Physical Jerks. — Physical exercises or "jerks" 
are an intensive form of development where 
you cannot get good or frequent opportunity of 
games, and may well be used in addition to games, 
provided that : 

i. They are not made entirely a drill, but 
something that each boy can really understand 

Health and Physical Development 79 

and want to practise for himself because of the good 
that he knows it does him. 

2. The instructor has some knowledge of 
anatomy and the possible harm of many physical 
drill movements on the young unformed body. 

Games having physical as well as moral values 
are being more and more taught in our Army 
gymnasium, and our returning soldiers can give 
valuable help in bringing these into play in our 
Scout clubrooms so long as they do not overtax 
immature boys. 

To the same end I am telling the boys in the 
Scout how to get up amateur clown stunts. 

Anything to get the boy to interest himself in 
steadily exercising his body and limbs, and in 
practising difficult feats with pluck and patience 
until he masters them. 

Then a team uniform of sorts is an attraction to 
the boys, promotes esprit de corps in his athletic 
work, and incidentally involves changing his 
clothes before and after playing, encourages a rub- 
down — a wash — cleanliness. 

"How to keep fit" soon becomes a subject in 
which the athletic boy takes a close personal inter- 
est, and can be formed the basis of valuable 
instruction in self -care, food values, hygiene, con- 
tinence, temperance, etc., etc. All this means 
physical education. 

Oxygen for Oxs Strength. — I saw some very smart 
physical drills by a Scout Troop quite recently in 
their club headquarters, 

80 Aids to Scoutmastership 

It was very fresh and good, but, my wig, the air 
was not ! It was, to say the least, "niffy." There 
was no ventilation. The boys were working like 
engines, but actually undoing their work all the 
time by sucking in poison instead of strengthening 
their blood. 

Fresh air is half the battle towards producing 
results in physical exercises, and it may advan- 
tageously be taken through the skin as well as 
through the nose when possible. 

Yes — that open air is the secret of success. It 
is what scouting is for, viz., to develop the out-of- 
doors habit as much as possible. 

I asked a Scoutmaster not long ago, in a great 
city, how he managed his Saturday hikes, whether 
in the park or in the country ? 

He did not have them at all. Why not? Be- 
cause his boys did not care about them. They 
preferred to come into the clubrooms on Saturday 
afternoons ! 

Of course they preferred it, poor little beggars; 
they are accustomed to being indoors. But that 
is what we are out to prevent in the Scouts — our 
object is to wean them from indoors and to make 
the outdoors attractive to them. 

"If I were King.''' — Alexandre Dumas fits has 
written: "If I were King of France I wouldn't 
allow any child of under twelve years to come into 
a town. Till then the youngsters would have to 
live in the open — out in the sun, in the fields, in 
the woods, in company with dogs and horses, face 

Health and Physical Development 81 

to face with nature, which strengthens the bodies, 
lends intelligence to the understanding, gives 
poetry to the soul, and rouses in them a curiosity 
which is more valuable to education than all the 
grammar books in the world. 

"They would understand the noises as well as 
the silences of the night ; they would have the best 
of religions — that which God himself reveals in the 
glorious sight of His daily wonders. 

"And at twelve years of age, strong, high- 
minded, and full of understanding they would be 
capable of receiving the methodical instruction 
which it would then be right to give them, and 
whose inculcation would then be easily accom- 
plished in four or five years. 

"Unfortunately for the youngsters, though 
happily for France, I don't happen to be King. 

"All that I can do is to give the advice and to 
suggest the way. The way is — make physical 
education of the child a first step in its life." 

Camp Grounds. — It would be difficult not to 
agree with Alexandre Dumas, especially in the 
light of the reports of the recruiting officers and of 
Sir George Newman (which everybody ought to 
read) . 

In the Scouts especially, if we adhere to our 
proper metier, we ought to make a big step in this 

To you who are Scout Presidents and Patrons, 
as well as to Local Associations, here is a special 

82 Aids to Scoutmastership 

We want open-air space, grounds of our own, 
preferably permanent camp grounds easily access- 
ible for " • use of Scouts. As the Movement 
grows tha e should form regular institutions at all 
centres of Scouting. 

As Army huts become available funds should, in 
the meantime, have been saved up for buying their 
to be re-erected as permanent camps. Can you 
not do this? 

Besides serving this great purpose such camps 
would have a double value. They could form 
centres of instruction for officers, where they could 
receive training in camp craft and Nature lore, and 
above all could imbibe the spirit of the out-of- 
doors — the Brotherhood of the Backwoods. 

This is the real objective of Scouting, and the 
key to its success. 

With too much town life we are apt to underlook 
our aims and revert to type. 

We are not a brigade — nor a Sunday School — 
but a school of the woods. We must get more 
into the open for the health, whether of the body or 
the soul, of Scout and of Scoutmaster. 


Temperance. — Temperate eating is almost as 
necessary with the boy as temperate drinking with 
the man. It is a good lesson in self-restraint for 
him to curb his appetite, both as regards the 
quantity and the nature of his food — few have 

Health and Physical Development 83 

fathomed the extent of a boy's capacity when it 
comes to tucking away food of whatever variety. 
The aim to be held out to him is fitr for ath- 

Temperance thus becomes a moral as well as 
physical detail of training. 

[ Continence. — Of all the points in the education 
of a boy the most difficult and one of the most 
important is that of sex hygiene. Body, mind, 
and soul, health, morality, and character, all are 
involved in the question. We have seen recently 
a storm raised because a schoolmistress gave her 
scholars some advice on the subject. It is a 
matter which has to be approached with tact 
on the part of the Scoutmaster, according to the 
individual character of each case. It is not as 
yet dealt with officially by the Education authori- 
ties. But it is one that cannot be ignored in the 
education of a boy, still less in that of the girl. 

There is a great barrier of prejudice and false 
prudery on the part of parents and public still to 
be overcome, and this has to be recognised and 
handled tactfully. It is, of course, primarily the 
duty of parents to deal with this question, but a 
very large number of them shirk their duty and 
then build up excuses for doing so. Such neglect 
is little short of criminal. 

As Dr. Allen Warner writes — 

1 ' Fear has often been expressed in the past that 
such teaching will lead to vicious habits, but there 
is no evidence that this is true, whilst experience 

84 Aids to Scout mastership 

proves that ignorance on this subject has led to 
the moral and physical wreckage of many lives." 

This is only too true, and I can testify from a 
fairly wide experience among soldiers and others. 
The amount of secret immorality that is now prev- 
alent is very serious indeed. 

The very fact that the subject is taboo between 
the boy and grown-ups is provocative, and the 
usual result is that he gets his knowledge, in a most 
perverted form, from another boy. 

In What a Boy Should Know, Drs. Schofield 
and Jackson write: "The sexual development of 
boys is gradual, and it is an unfortunate fact that 
habits of abuse are begun and constantly prac- 
tised at a much younger age. If safety lies in the 
adage that 'to be forewarned is to be forearmed,' 
then boys must be told what is coming to them, 
for the critical period of puberty lies close ahead 
of them, and no boy should be allowed to reach it 
in ignorance." 

A Scoutmaster has here a tremendous field for 
good. He will do well in the first instance to 
ascertain whether the father of the boy has any 
objection to his talking to him on the subject. 

Sex Teaching. — One rock on which every boy is 
eventually bound to grate sooner or later is that of 
sexual temptation. The danger to his happiness 
and to his health, both moral and physical, is at its 
height here, and it is on account of this particular 
rock that the Scoutmaster can be more valuable to 
many a lad than even his own parent or pastor or 

Health and Physical Development 85 

teacher for the reason that these so often evade this 
most profound of all the duties they owe to a boy. 

Many of them funk dealing with the question 
from a prudish sense of shyness. They keep 
putting it off till it is too late and the boy has got 
wrong notions from other boys. Parents would 
go at it with greater confidence if they would only 
realise that the boy who is taken in time and who 
has not yet been contaminated by evil companion- 
ship is quite open-minded and as ready to be 
informed on this subject as if he were hearing 
about the mechanism of a motor car, or the fea- 
tures of an aeroplane, and if he is met in an equally 
matter of fact way by the teacher, there need be no 
embarrassment, neither shyness nor making fun of 
the subject. Moreover, once confidence has been 
established the boy will begin to ask questions on his 
own account : if this is encouraged the rest is easy. 

The Scoutmaster merely has to consider himself 
rather as the elder brother of the boy than as 
officer or father. He must make an opportunity 
of talking to the boy either alone, or best of all in 
the company of one or two others — not more — and 
encourage them to ask questions. 

Then his talk and the successive stages of the 
subject must be adapted to the age and develop- 
ment of the boy he is addressing. 

1st Stage. The first introduction to it is quite 
easily instituted as a part of Nature Study. It 
should be carried out by gradual steps, beginning 
for instance with the dissection and explanation of 

86 Aids to Scoutmastership 

the life history of a flower; it should preferably be 
a big one whose parts can be seen without the aid 
of strong magnifying glasses unless you happen to 
possess them. 

The aim would be to show the functions of the 
pistil and stamens respectively as the mother and 
father of the young plant. 

P = Petals. C = Calyx. S = Stamens with pollen on their anthea. 

In the centre is the Pistil [drawn on large scale and in section] with pollen falling 

into its Ovary (O) which contains embryo seeds. One of these /T) has been 

fertilized by a grain of pollen. 

Absolutely correct scientific detail need not be 
gone into since these vary with the species, but 
the general principle can be shown of the pistil 
containing embryo seeds which lie dormant in the 
ovary until fertilised by the pollen shed from the 
stamens. The seeds then develop and are dropped 
by the parent plant into the ground, there to be 

Health and Physical Development 87 

warmed and watered and to grow up as young 
plants finding their own living from the food in the 
earth and developing into exact reproductions of 
the form and attributes of their parent plants. 

2d Stage. The simile can then be carried on in 
the life history of birds by showing how the hen 
carries the embryo seeds inside her in the form of 
eggs and that the male bird carries the fertilising 
pollen which he conveys to the eggs which are in 
the hen. 

She lays the eggs and takes care of them with a 
strong mothering instinct, till the yolk and the 
white together develop into flesh and bone, feath- 
ers and claws, that form together an individual 
endowed with life. This in itself is a perfect mir- 
acle of nature though the wonder of it is lost sight 
of through the familiarity of daily repetition. 

3d Stage. The same great law of Nature is 
carried out in the animal world, where the female 
mother carries within her ovary the seed germ which 
will eventually reproduce her species when it has 
been fertilised by the pollen germ carried by the 
male father which in this case is contained in a fluid 
instead of the dry condition of pollen of the flower. 
Animals have further the gift of understanding and 
instinct. The wonderful work of the Creator can 
be dilated upon by showing how, from the junc- 
tion of two microscopic germs into one, an indi- 
vidual being is ultimately produced endowed with 
all the physical qualities of the parents in every 
detail of form and feather, fur, or fin. 

88 Aids to Scoutmastership 

4th Stage. Then the moral point may also be 
brought forward of the wonderful devotion and 
pluck of even the timid birds in protecting their 
young, taking such instances, if you will, of shy 
birds like the plover or partridge being inspired 
almost to attack a human being and certainly to 
attack dogs, cats, etc., in their desire to save their 

Among the higher animals the timid become 
bold, while the usually savage beasts, such as lions 
and buffaloes, are perfect fiends when their females 
are enceinte or their young are afoot. 

The female animal is as a rule an example of 
motherly love in protecting her young, while the 
male is a type of chivalry in protecting the female. 

5th Stage. The human being comes under the 
same law of nature as for animals. The woman 
carries within her ovary the tiny egg which can 
only become fertile when the "pollen" of the man 
is mixed with it. But with the human mind, 
the obligations of motherhood on the part of the 
woman and of chivalry and protection on the part 
of the man are naturally highly intensified as com- 
pared with those of animals. 

Every man has a debt of gratitude to pay to 
woman ; he owes everything to the one woman from 
whose egg he came and who suffered so much and 
gave so much mother love to make him a sound and 
healthy human being. 

It is a sign of manliness when a man shows 
courtesy and consideration for woman because she 

Health and Physical Development 89 

is a woman — a person to be protected for the sake 
of the race. 

That is part of the reason for Scouts to be chival- 
rous if they are to be considered manly. A man 
is endowed with extra strength wherewith to pro- 
tect women ; he would be playing a low-down game 
if he did anything to lower the honour or dignity 
of any women whatever. 

6th Stage. As in animals the tiny germ which 
is the human egg in its first stage, although no 
bigger than a pin's point, begins so soon as it is 
fertilised by the father to grow into a being which 
not only assumes gradually the human form in all 
its wonderful mechanism, but reproduces to an 
extraordinary degree the physical points of both 
parents and even many of their mental qualities. 

It is so wonderful a development that when fully 
gone into it gives the boy a new vision of the 
Creator's marvellous power, and of the sacred 
character of the rite of love and child production 
that should raise this above the dirt and low joking 
which is too often prevalent among unthinking 
boys and even among men who ought to know 

Many a boy on arriving at the age of puberty 
is puzzled at the physical change that is going on 
within him. He cannot understand it and very 
often does not know whom to turn to to ask about 

But the Scoutmaster can explain it for him by 
the fact that he is becoming a man, that his 

90 Aids to Scoutmastership 

"pollen" or semen is beginning to ripen in his 
system and as it does so it will give him increased 
strength and size. 

A point which in many cases appeals strongly 
to the lad coming into puberty, is the fact that this 
pollen or supply of germs comes to him from his 
father who had it from his father, and so back 
from son to father for generations even to the first 
father of the race. It is handed down to him as it 
were in trust to pass on to his son. 

That is his desired life work in the scheme of 
things — in the service of the Creator. The trust 
is a sacred one. If he throws away this seed 
unworthily he will be doing a great wrong ; for one 
thing, he is depriving himself of some of his male 
strength, for another, he is not keeping faithful to 
his trust. 

Temptation of the very strongest kind will come 
to him from time to time to break his trust; let 
him be prepared for this, and as a Scout resist it. 
By successful resistance he will be the stronger 
physically, but very much more so morally. To 
give way to the temptation once, leads to giving 
way more easily next time, and so on till some- 
times habits of self -abuse or fornication are formed. 

From such a fall all sorts of dangers arise, physi- 
cal, mental, and moral. 

It is not right to frighten the boy with these, but 
it is a crime not to warn him of them. Too late 
many boys learn of the weakening effect of exces- 
sive sexual stimulation on body and mind, and 

Health and Physical Development 91 

become needlessly alarmed and obsessed with 
nervous fear which might be entirely avoided if 
the matter had been properly explained to them. 

7th Stage. So too with those going out into the 
world as young men, the dangers of the various 
venereal diseases ought to be and can be ex- 

Non-Smoking. — Somebody once wrote an im- 
proved edition of Scouting for Boys, and in it he 
ordered that "Scouts are on no account to smoke." 
It is generally a risky thing to order boys not to do 
a thing; it immediately opens to them the adven- 
ture of doing it contrary to orders. 

Advise them against a thing, or talk of it as 
despicable or silly, and they will avoid it. I am 
sure this is very much the case in the matter of 
unclean talk, of gambling, of smoking, and other 
youthful faults. 

It is well to establish a good tone and a public 
opinion among your boys on a plane which puts 
these things down as "what kids do, in order to 
look fine before others." 

Walking the Tight Rope. — This may strike some 
readers as a curious means of teaching self-disci- 
pline or health. But it has been found by experi- 
ence to do so. 

You may see it being practised in Army gym- 
nasiums in the form of men walking a plank fixed 
up sideways at a height of some feet above the 
floor. It is found that by getting them to con- 
centrate their whole attention on this ticklish 

92 Aids to Scoutmastership 

test, they gain a close hold over themselves and 
their nerves. The experiment has been carried 
further to the extent that it has been found that if 
a soldier is making bad practice on the rifle-range 
a few practices in "walking the plank" readily 
bring back for him the necessary self-control and 
power of concentration. 

It is an exercise that appeals to boys. They 
can bind several Scout staves together as a balanc- 
ing pole, which will give them additional power of 
balance in their first efforts. 

Rifle Practice 

So, too, marksmanship is an excellent means of 
physical and mental training for a boy. It inter- 
ests him, strengthens his eyesight, and induces 
quiet, insistent concentration of mind, together 
with control of the nerves and thoughts. 

Dr. Kerr, the Medical Officer to the Education 
Branch of the London County Council, wrote: 

"The powers of spontaneous action, self-respect, 
and moral esteem must be called into action in the 
boy. This is done in the secondary schools chiefly 
by games. The recently introduced 'Boy Scouts' 
have had an extraordinarily good effect in this 

"Also light rifle-shooting appears to be almost 
as powerful a factor in developing self-respect . . . 
it gives the boy something to strive for in attaining 

Health and Physical Development 93 
Physical Development Drill 

One hears a great many people advocating drill 
as the way to bring about better physical develop- 
ment among boys, and urging on that account that 
boys should be made into cadets. I have had a good 
deal to do with drilling in my time, and if people 
think they are going to develop a boy's physical 
strength and set-up by drilling him for an hour a 
week, they will meet with disappointing results. 

Drill as given to soldiers, day by day, for month 
after month, undoubtedly does bring about great 
physical development. But the instructors — 
these are well-trained experts — have their pupils 
continually under their charge and under strict 
discipline, and even then they occasionally make 
mistakes, and heartstrain and other troubles are 
not infrequently produced even in the grown and 
formed man. 

Furthermore, drill is all a matter of instruction, 
of hammering it into the boys, and is in no way an 
education where they learn it for themselves. 

Colonel Petersen, the Director of Physical 
Training in Australia, had a talk with me on that 
subject, and told how much is being done in Aus- 
tralia and in foreign countries in that line, while we 
in England are very much behind-hand. But in 
no case does the Government rely upon compul- 
sory cadet or soldiering to supply the physical 
training, although such service is prevalent in 
those countries; it is done entirely in the schools. 

94 Aids to Scoutmastership 

And the teachers have to be trained experts with a 
proper knowledge of anatomy, otherwise the 
danger of overstrain for the children is very great. 

As regards drill for Scouts, I have frequently had 
to remind Scoutmasters that it is to be avoided — 
that is, in excess. Apart from militarist objections 
on the part of some parents, one is averse to it 
because a second-rate Scoutmaster cannot see the 
higher aim of Scouting (namely, drawing out of the 
individual), and not having the originality to 
teach it even if he saw it, he reverts to drill as an 
easy means of getting his boys into some sort of 
shape for making a show on parade. At the 
same time Scoutmasters occasionally go too far 
the other way, and allow their boys to go slack all 
over the place, without any apparent discipline or 
smartness. This is worse. You want a golden 
mean — just sufficient instruction to show them 
what is wanted of them in smartness and deport- 
ment, and a fund of esprit de corps, such as makes 
them brace themselves up and bear themselves 
like men for the honour of their Troop. Occasional 
drills are necessary to keep this up, but these 
should not be indulged in at the expense of the 
more valuable Scout training. 

I know a very smart regiment in which the 
recruits received very little barrack-square drill; 
when once they had been shown how to hold 
themselves they were told that as soon as they 
could do it habitually they would be allowed to go 
out and take their pleasures and their duties as 

Health and Physical Development 95 

ordinary soldiers. It was "up to them" to smarten 
themselves instead of having deportment drilled 
into them week after week for months. They 
drilled themselves and each other, and passed out 
of the recruit stage in less than half the ordinary 

Education as opposed to instruction once more ! 
The result was obtained by putting the ambition 
and responsibility on to the men themselves. And 
that is exactly the way by which, I believe, that 
you can best produce the physical development 
among boys. 

But, after all, natural games, plenty of fresh air, 
wholesome food, and adequate rest do far more to 
produce well-developed healthy boys than any 
amount of physical or military drill. 

Measurement Card. — With a view to promoting 
this sense of responsibility for his own physical 
development, we have published a card for the 
use of each boy. It gives the average size and 
weight for each year of age ; the boy's own measure- 
ments are recorded and compared, and if he does 
not come up to the average in any one particular, 
the Scoutmaster shows him which exercises he 
should take to build him up to supply the defi- 

Swimming. — Denmark is perhaps the foremost 
country in the physical training of its rising genera- 
tion. Norway and Sweden are not far behind. I 
have seen the remarkable proficiency of the child- 
ren in swimming, which is there considered the 

96 Aids to Scoutmastership 

best means to physical development. In Copen- 
hagen are four large swimming schools. Each can 
accommodate from iooo to 1500 children at a 
time. In Stockholm the ordinary schools have 
their swimming baths for the children, and practi- 
cally every one of the pupils can swim as part of 
the scheme of education. 

The advantages of swimming among many other 
forms of physical training are these: 

The pupil delights in it, and is keen to learn. 

He gets to enjoy cleanliness. 

He learns pluck in attaining the art. 

He gains self-confidence on mastering it. 

He develops his chest and breathing organs. 

He develops muscle. 

He gains the power of saving life and looks for 
opportunities of doing it. 

Signalling. — Signalling practice, while it is edu- 
cating the boy's intelligence, is at the same time 
giving him valuable physical exercise, hour after 
hour, in body twisting and arm-work, and in train- 
ing the eye. 

So, too, boat-rowing is an excellent muscle 
developer, and appeals very greatly to the Scout. 
It is only allowed after he has qualified in swim- 
ming, so induces a good lot of boys to train them- 
selves in that line. 

Body Exercises. — The six exercises given in 
Scouting for Boys (Chapter VI.) are all that are 
essential, for the reasons there stated. They can 
be taught without any danger to the lad by Scout- 

Health and Physical Development 97 

masters who are not experts in anatomy, etc., and 
this is more than can be said of many other body 
exercises which are sometimes put into practice. 

Health and Hygiene 

Cleanliness. — Cleanliness inside as well as out, 
as described in Scouting for Boys (Chapter VI.) is 
of prime importance to health. 

That rub-down with a damp rough towel, where 
baths are impossible, is of very big importance to 
inculcate as a habit in your boys. Also, the habit 
of washing hands before a meal and after the daily 
rear. The need for scrupulous cleanliness may 
well be inculcated by the practice of "Kill that 
fly," not merely as a useful public service which 
Scouts can perform, but also as a means of intro- 
ducing them to the minuteness of disease-germs as 
conveyed on flies' feet, and yet of such virulent 
effect as to poison people. 

Fresh Air. — I have drawn attention in Scouting 
for Boys to the value of breathing fresh air. Few 
people realise how poisonous is the air of a shut room 
or railway carriage where many are congregated. 

Food is an all-important consideration for the 
growing lad, yet there is a vast amount of igno- 
rance on the subject on the part of parents, and, 
therefore, on the part of the boys. It is helpful 
towards the energy and health of his boys — espe- 
cially in camp — that the Scoutmaster should know 
something about the matter. 

98 Aids to Scoutmastership 

As regards quantity, a boy between thirteen and 
fifteen requires about 80 per cent, of a man's 
allowance. He will gladly put down 150 per cent, 
if permitted. 

The meal should be as simple and unmixed as 
possible, all vegetable (i.e. bread, oatmeal, vege- 
tables, and fruit) or all animal (soup, meat, and 
cheese) . The latter gives him the greater amount 
of protein to the ounce, and protein is the essential 
for body-building. The former gives him a greater 
amount of the natural salts needed. Cheese is for 
some indigestible though sustaining — if cooked it is 
much more easily assimilated. 

Oatmeal is a grand food for boys. The Report 
of the National Food Inquiry Bureau gives results 
of inquiry among — 

21,000 school children and Boy Scouts. 
490 athletes. 
547 medical men. 
83 matrons of hospitals. 
2,000 private families. 

The very large proportion of these are strongly 
in favour of oatmeal as a good all-round food. 

Eleven out of twelve athletes use it when train- 
ing. Five hundred and fourteen out of the 547 
doctors recommend it. One Boy Scout even writes 
poetry about it : 

I used to be so pale and thin, 
But now I'm fat and stout, 

Health and Physical Development 99 

'Tis porridge that has changed me to 
A strong and healthy Scout. 

Physically Defective Scouts. — Through Scouting 
there are numbers of crippled, deaf and dumb, and 
blind boys now gaming greater health, happiness, 
and hope than they ever had before. 

The reports we receive from medical officers and 
matrons in charge of them give me even greater 
pleasure than those recording big rallies or im- 
provement in efficiency of the sound boys. The 
desire to obtain badges of proficiency seems to lead 
them on from one hobby to another with excellent 
results upon them, physically as well as morally. 

It is astonishing what a number of badges 
crippled Scouts can take, and even for the blind 
the following are apparently not impossible: 
Ambulance, Basket-making, Bugler, Musician, 
Clerk, Interpreter, Master-at-Arms (Wrestling and 
Jiu-jitsu), Pioneer, Poultry Farmer, Morse Sig- 

Scoutmasters Can Co-operate with School- 
masters. — According to the Report of the Board 
of Education, the principal ills among school 
children are due to the following causes : 

Food-insufficiency and unsuitability, bad home 
surroundings and neglect, lack of fresh air and 
sunlight, unsuitable sleeping arrangements, insuffi- 
cient sleep, employment out of school hours, want 
of cleanliness, unhealthy school conditions, con- 
genital debility, disease (mouth-breathing, decayed 


ioo Aids to Scoutmastership 

teeth, adenoids, bronchitis, tuberculosis, heart 
disease, rheumatism, weakness). 

Scoutmasters can in many cases help the school- 
masters in remedying these, and similarly school- 
masters can help Scoutmasters by informing them 
of results of the medical officer's inspection of their 
boys as regards condition of heart, eyesight, hear- 
ing, teeth, etc. Working in co-operation in this 
way they should between them be able to do a 
great deal for the health of the lads under their 

From the Education Report one gathers that, 
of the children leaving school to take up work in 
the world : 

10 per cent, suffer from defective eyesight. 

i per cent, suffer from tuberculosis. 

40 per cent, suffer from extensive decay of teeth 
(only about 10 per cent, have sound teeth). 

3 per cent suffer from deafness. 

2 per cent, suffer from heart disease. 

A large percentage of weaklings in our country 
could, if taken in hand in time by Scoutmasters 
and others, be developed into valuable citizens 
instead of becoming a misery to themselves and a 
burden to the nation. H. G. Wells describes Nel- 
son as "a one-eyed, one-armed, fragile adulterer, 
prone to sea-sickness. " So he may have been, but 
he had the robust courage of a wild boar, and he 
saved our country. General Wolfe was another 
weakling. Voltaire was thrown into a chair as 
dead when born, but his father accidentally sat 

Health and Physical Development 101 

down on him, and so revived him. Napoleon 
Bonaparte was another weakling as a child, and so 
was Theodore Roosevelt also, and many others 
who by exercise of their will and character after- 
wards overcame their physical defects and rose to 
be valuable men for their country. 

Subject III. — Physical Health 

ist Week. — Self -Control. 

(a) Temperance. 

(b) Continence. 

2D Week. — Physical 

Study and Practice. 

Food-gluttony, its reasons 
and results. Evils of 
drink, smoking, gam- 
bling, etc. How they 
start, what they lead to, 
how to prevent inconti- 
ence, how it starts, its 
bad effects, ways of 
overcoming it. How to 
advise boys. 

Games and Practices, — 
Walk the plank. Rifle 
shooting. Mid-day rest 
for growing boys. 
Course of Anatomy. 

The six physical exercises 
for Scouts, their reasons 
and correct practice. 

Practise and make records 
of Scout's pace for ]/ 2 
mile, ioo yards running, 

102 Aids to Scoutmastership 

high jump, throwing 
cricket ball, as standard 
tests for Scouts. 

How to weigh and meas- 
ure boys. Scout drill. 
Quarter-staff play with 
staves. Boxing. Wres- 
tling. "Spotty face" 
for eyes. Testing for 
colour-blindness. Sense 
of smell. Blindfold 
training in locating one- 
self, etc. 
3D Week. — Personal Fresh Air: Anatomi- 

Health. cal Value of Oxgyen. 

Deep breathing and how 
to teach it correctly. 
Fidgetiness a sign of 
growth. Correct amount 
of exercise, sleep, and 
food for boy. 

Internal organs and their 

Food values. 

Practise cooking : Also 
above exercises. 

4TH Week. — Hygiene and Ventilation and light, 
Sanitation. reasons and methods. 

Microbes, what they are, 
how conveyed. (Con- 
vey disease to teeth, 

Health and Physical Development 103 

Bath or dry rub. Cleanli- 
ness of hands, nails, 

Care of teeth, eyes, nose- 
breathing. Practise 
missioner's work. 
Week-end Camp. Practise the chief items of 

above and camp games 
tending to health and 
physical development, 
such as rowing, paper- 
chase, athletic sports, 
basket-ball, baseball, 
football, cleanliness in 

Cleanliness in cooking ar- 
rangements, refuse pits, 
latrines, etc. 

Practise wholesome camp 
cookery. Camp hospi- 
tal. Drying frames for 
wet clothes, etc. 


FROM a national point of view we have too 
many drones in our social hive, both among 
our well-to-do classes and among the poor. 
We are a comparatively small nation in num- 
bers, and we need the services of every man of our 
race if we are to keep our place in the heavy 
competition of trades and manufactures that is 
coming on around us. Yet there is a fearful waste 
of human material in Great Britain to-day. This 
is mainly due to ineffective training. The general 
mass of boys are not taught to like work. Even 
when they are taught handicrafts or business 
qualities they are not shown how to apply these to 
making a career, nor is the flame of ambition kin- 
dled in them. Where they happen to be square 
pegs they are too often placed in round holes. 
Whether it is the fault of the schoolmaster, or the 
parent, or the system of education, one cannot 
say, but the fact remains that it is so. Conse- 
quently, those boys who have not got these gifts 
naturally are allowed to drift and to become 
wasters. They are a misery to themselves and a 
burden — even in some cases a danger — to the 
State. And the large proportion of those who 

Making a Career 105 

do make some sort of a success would undoubtedly 
do better were they trained in a more practical 
way. In the Boy Scouts we can do something to 
remedy these evils. We can take some steps 
towards giving even the poorest boy a start and a 
chance in life — equipped, at any rate, with hope 
and a handicraft. 

How? Naturally one's thoughts run to Handi- 
craft Badges. Though we call these "Handi- 
crafts," they are, with our present low standard 
of tests, little more than "Hobbies." This, how- 
ever, is part of our policy of leading the boys on 
with small and easy beginnings ; and these hobbies 
become more specialised as vocational training for 
the "Rovers" in line with the ideas of the Edu- 
cation Act. In the meantime, hobbies have their 
value; through these the boy learns to use his fin- 
gers and his brain, and to take a pleasure in work. 
For the well-to-do these may remain his hobbies 
for years; for the poorer boy they may lead to 
craftsmanship which will give him a career. In 
either case, the boy is not so likely to become a 
waster later on. Hobbies are an antidote to 
Satan's little games. 

But hobbies or handicrafts are not likely to make 
a career for a boy without the help of certain moral 
qualities. Thus, the craftsman must have self- 
discipline. He must adapt himself to the require- 
ments of his employer, he must keep himself sober, 
and efficient, and willing. 

He must have energy, and that largely depends 

io6 Aids to Scoutmastership 

on the amount he has of ambition, of skill, of 
resourcefulness, and of good health. 

Now, how do we apply these in the Boy Scout's 
training? The progressive steps by which you 
work up to them with the boys, begin on the right 
of the table. 

Qualities to be 

Attributes which 

Scout Law 
and badges 

Scouting practices 

by which they are 



they include. 

which help 

(c) Self- 

Obedience. Thrift. 


Scout law. Wood- 


Sobriety. Good 


craft lore and 

temper. Forti- 


camp etiquette. 


Camp discipline. 
Ceremonial drill 
discipline. Dis- 
cipline of fire 
brigade, trek 
cart, boat, bridge- 
building drills. 
Savings bank. 
Games requiring 
good temper, pa- 
tience, and stick- 
ing to rules. 

(g) Energy. 

Ambition. Health. 


Camp resourceful- 



ness, leading to 



pioneering. Pio- 


Sea Scout. 

neering, leading 


to handicrafts. 


Health exercises 









etc., etc. 

Making a Career 107 

The Scoutmaster's Share 

So much, then, for the lines on which a boy can 
be practically prepared through Scouting for mak- 
ing a career. But this only prepares him. It is 
still in the power of his Scoutmaster to give him 
further help in making that career a successful 

First, by showing the lad ways by which he can 
perfect the superficial instruction received as a 
Scout; whereby, for instance, he can develop his 
hobbies into handicrafts. The Scoutmaster can 
show him where to get higher technical education, 
how to get scholarships or apprenticeships, how 
to train himself for particular professions, how to 
invest his savings, how to make estimates and 
to tender for jobs, how to keep his stores and 
accounts, books, and so on. 

Secondly, by himself knowing the different 
kinds of employment agencies and how to use 
them, the terms of service in the Civil Service, 
Army, Navy, and other professions, the Scout- 
master can give the lad invaluable help, by 
advising him, on his knowledge of his qualifica- 
tions, as to which line of life he is best fitted 

All this means that the Scoutmaster must him- 
self look round and inform himself fully on these 
and like points. By taking a little trouble him- 
self he can make successful lives for many of his 

108 Aids to Scoutmastership 

The Necessary Qualities for Success 

Mr. Gordon Selfridge has very kindly given me 
some ideas on training lads for careers in large 
business houses. He is a great believer in the 
saying of Robert Louis Stevenson: "To travel 
hopefully is a better thing than to arrive, and the 
true success is to labour." 

' ' One of the best things in this world is progress 
in the right direction." 

One of the maxims which Mr. Selfridge im- 
presses on his employees is this: "A man should 
always act as if he had a serious and clever com- 
petitor close behind him, so that he is continually 
putting forth his best efforts to keep the imaginary 
competitor from winning his place." 

The guide book which Mr. Selfridge issues for 
the assistance of his employees shows how the 
following points, which we inculcate in the Boy 
Scouts, are of greatest value to a young fellow in 
getting on in his career in a big business house. 
Strict adherence to instructions, with the feeling that 
such obedience is "playing the game" for the good 
of the business. 

Energy and making best use of the time avail- 
able. ' ' Waste of time where so many are employed 
is a very serious matter. If one hundred people 
waste only five minutes each in a day, the loss is 
more than eight hours, or a hundred days in the 

Courtesy: * ' We would have the members of our 

Making a Career 109 

staff courteous to one another. " " Impress visitors 
or customers that they are welcome." 

"It is attractive to customers to be served by 
assistants whose manners show happiness in what 
they are doing." 

"Those who come merely to look, may become 
good customers if merchandise is shown them 
tactfully and cheerfully." 

Intelligence: "An employee should not be con- 
tent merely to know his own groove in the business, 
but should develop some general knowledge of its 
other branches, and so be able both to advise 
customers and to qualify himself for higher posts." 

Neatness in dress and appearance: "These go 
a long way to commending an applicant for 
employment or for promotion." 

Perseverance: * ' In my opinion, two of the quali- 
ties which will undoubtedly carry one far along the 
path of success are concentration and perseverance. 

"You cannot succeed by making an effort in 
fits and starts; on the contrary, a sustained and 
steady effort is necessary. Hence it comes about 
that the 'sticker' beats the merely clever man so 
often in the race of life." 

Personally, I fully endorse these ideas, and if I 
were asked to sum up all in a single motto for guid- 
ing a boy to success in his profession, I should say — 

"Stick to it, and make yourself indispensable." 

On that text you can preach a very practical 
sermon and frame a useful training. It is encour- 

no Aids to Scoutmastership 

aging to a lad, even if he is only an errand boy, to 
know that if he does his errands so well that his 
master feels he could not get a better boy, he is 
safely on the road to promotion. But he must 
stick to it, and not be led aside by fits of disin- 
clination or annoyance; if he gives way to 
these he will never succeed. Patience and per- 
severance win the day. "Softly, softly, catchee 

"Pioneering" as a First Step 

The first step towards getting a Scout to take up 
handiwork is most easily effected in camp, in the 
practice of hut-building, tree-felling, bridge-build- 
ing, improvising camp utensils, such as pot-hooks 
and candlesticks, etc., tent-making, mat- weaving 
with the camp-loom, and so on, as suggested in 
Scouting for Boys. The boys find these tasks to be 
practical and useful to their comfort in the camp- 
ing season. After making a start on these, they 
will be the more keen to go in for such hobbies in 
the winter evenings, in the club, as will bring them 
badges in return for proficiency, and money in 
return for skilful work. In that way they soon 
grow into ardent, energetic workers. 

I commend to your notice the practical sug- 
gestions on this head, given by Mr. Ben Wilde, in 
the Scoutmasters' Training Course (No. 2 Bir- 
mingham), on the subject of "Badges and How 
They Should be Won." 

Making a Career 1 1 1 

Technical Training 

The following extract from Ye Handi-craft 
Booklet, by Leader A. Pruden, of the Kent Street 
(London) Troop, gives a sample of what Scout- 
masters can do in the direction of hobby training, 
which may be suggestive. 

In hints for helping a Scout to take up handi- 
crafts the author writes — 

"Let him first see the list of various hobbies 
for which Scout badges are granted, then let him 
carefully read in the Boy Scout Test Book all about 
the particular badges which most appeal to him. 
Having done this, it will not be difficult for him to 
decide which he will choose for his hobby. 

"His Scoutmaster can probably put him in 
touch with some expert who will be pleased to 
help him forward. If he be fourteen years of age, 
in London, the County Council will let him join an 
evening class for his particular hobby, where will 
be unfolded to him some of the secrets of his craft. 

"Even when only thirteen years of age, if he is 
skilled in his hobby, if he has the sanction of his 
headmaster, and provided he is in the seventh 
standard, he can gain entrance to the London 
County Council Central School of Arts and Crafts, 
Southampton Row, for Silversmiths' Work and 
allied crafts, which include Silversmithing, Gold- 
smiths' and Jewellers' Work, Diamond Mounting 
and Gem Setting, Art Metal Work, Chasing, 
Repousse Work, Engraving, Die Sinking, Design- 

H2 Aids to Scoutmastership 

ing, Modelling, Metal Casting, Enamelling, etc.; 
further, if only in the sixth standard, he is eligible 
to join the school and learn the craft of Book Pro- 
duction, Printing, Binding, etc. There are small 
fees to pay, but in cases where the parents are poor, 
these are reduced or remitted. Then there is the 
Westminster Technical Institute of Cookery, 
where he can be trained as a chef. 

"At the age of sixteen, when he leaves, his Scout- 
master should have little difficulty in arranging a 
five years' apprenticeship for him with a business 
firm of standing, where, for the whole of the period 
he will be receiving a wage. During his five years 
he can meet with success on every hand ; he can gain 
London County Council money scholarships at the 
evening classes he would still attend; his friends 
would recognise his skill, and in spare time he would 
be able to make saleable articles of artistic merit. 

"At the age of twenty-one, when he arrives at 
man's estate, he should be able (according to his 
skill and talent) to secure a position at any figure 
between £100 and £300 per annum. It will thus 
be seen by every Scout who reads this booklet, that 
by the development of a hobby, he has the oppor- 
tunity of laying the foundation for a successful 
and happy career." 


The Scoutmaster, knowing his boy's character, 
can best advise him and his parents as to what 
line to take up. 

Making a Career 113 

In the first place, he should discriminate between 
those employments which offer a future to the 
boy and those which lead to nothing (so-called 
"Blind-Alley" jobs). These latter often bring 
in good money for the time being, to increase the 
weekly income of the family, and are, therefore, 
adopted for the boy by the parents regardless of 
the fact that they give no opening to him for a 
man's career afterwards. 

Those which promise a future need careful se- 
lection with regard to- the lad's capabilities, and 
they can be prepared for, while he is yet a Scout. 
A skilled employment is essentially better than an 
unskilled one for the boy's future success in life. 

Employment Agencies 

Employment agencies, and the means of getting 
suitable occupations for lads, differ according to 
localities, and the Scoutmaster, therefore, has to 
make himself acquainted with those prevailing in 
his neighbourhood. 

But in many centres it is found, by experience, 
best for the Scout authorities to form their own 
employment agencies. They can then place their 
lads out in situations best suited to their respective 
individual characters, and thus give them unusu- 
ally good chances of getting on . 

All this may, no doubt, give some little extra 
trouble to the Scoutmaster or to the Association, 
President, or Commissioner, but it is repaid by the 

H4 Aids to Scoutmastership 

consciousness that he has thereby been the means 
of starting the boy in life, with every prospect of 
success, where, in many a case, he would otherwise 
have drifted into a wasted existence. 

Surely such result would in itself be a sufficient 
reward to most men. 

Industrial Ignorance 

I often wonder whether it is not possible for 
some business-headed Scoutmaster to introduce 
into his Troop work some form of co-operative 
manufacture or industry — say, for one instance, 
toy-making — in which each Patrol would have its 
definite share, and which should be organised and 
carried on in such a way as to give practical in- 
sight and experience of running an industrial con- 
cern, showing how increased output brings increased 
returns, etc. 

Sir Lynden Macassey has lately pointed out in 
the Times that after conducting some three thou- 
sand industrial conferences, he is impressed with 
the fact that economic ignorance and fallacies 
among both employers and employed are largely 
responsible for the ruinous unrest now prevalent. 

Workmen seem unable to grasp the principle 
that security of employment, good "real" wages, 
reasonable hours, and fair conditions of employ- 
ment can be assured only by production. 

Employers generally have no conception of the 
demonstrable money value of treating the man as 

Making a Career 115 

entitled to a voice in regulating the conditions of 
his employment, nor of the definite mistake of 
treating him as an economic unit. Workmen 
tenaciously cling to the fallacy, long exploded in 
America, that restricted output relieves unemploy- 
ment, enhances wages, and raises the status of 

Wrong ideas and fallacies are actually and de- 
liberately taught to children in Socialist schools. 
False doctrine, heresy, and schism are definitely 
preached to workers by means of leaflets and 
addresses so that antagonism is the prevailing spirit. 
It is all based on wrong grounds. We don't, in 
the Scouts, want to join in the politics which some- 
how get mixed up with the economic question, 
but we do want to educate the coming man as to 
where his best interests lie and how, in serving his 
country's commercial interests, he is also serving 
his own. 

n6 Aids to Scoutmastership 



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Making a Career 


Subject IV. — "Making a Career" 

Theoretical Aim 

5TH Week. — Ready obedi- 
ence. Using wits and 

6th Week. — Good temper. 
Cheeriness. Keenness. 

7TH Week. — Pioneering 
leading to hobbies. 

8th Week. — Hobbies lead 
ing to handicrafts. 
Exhibitions of articles 
made by Scouts. 

Instruction in Detail 

Trek cart drill. Fire drill. 
Boat drill (rowing and 
Football and other team 
games {e.g. whale hunt- 
ing), involving good tem- 
per, discipline, patience, 
sticking to the rules 
and playing for one's 
side and not for oneself. 

Use of axe. Camp ex- 
pedients. Camp loom. 
Model bridge building. 
Real bridge building, 
Improvising bridges, 
huts, tools, etc., out of 
materials available on 
the spot. 

• Working up for Badge. 
Examination in the dif- 
ferent crafts and trades 
in Technical or Evening 
Schools. How to ap- 
prentice boys. Use of 
Labour Bureaus and 
Employment Agencies. 
Conditions of service in 
Civil, Naval, Military, 
and Post Office, etc. 

n8 Aids to Scoutmastership 

Week-End Camps 

A trek cart to carry equipment. Cut your own 
wood for fires. Make your own bed with camp loom 
and other camp expedients. Camp fire yarns on 
theories. Practise details. Camp games. 


THE attributes which we have so far been 
studying in this course of training, as tend- 
ing to make our boys into manly, healthy, 
happy working citizens, are, to a great extent, 
selfish ones designed for the good of the individual. 
We now come to the fourth quality, and that is 
where, by developing his outlook, he gives out 
good to others. 

Here is a summary of the steps by which Scout- 
ing helps to attain this object. 

Qualities to be 

Attributes which 
they include. 

Scout Law. 

Scouting practices 

by which they are 



Loyalty to God. 


Personal example. 

Respect for 


Nature study. 

others. Duty to 

Scout Law 

Good turns. 



"M issi on er's 
Work." "Scout's 


Chivalry. Kindli- 


Good turns. 


ness. Self-sacri- 

Friend to ani- 

fice. Patriotism. 

mals. First-Aid. 

Loyalty. Jus- 



Fair-p 1 a y . 
Games. Path- 
finders. Marks- 
manship. De- 
bating societies. 
Mock trials. 
Court of honour. 
Old Scouts kept 
in touch with the 
Scout law and 


120 Aids to Scoutmastership 

Development of Outlook: Reverence. 

Development of outlook naturally begins with a 
respect for God, which we may best term "Rever- 

Reverence to God and reverence for one's neighbour 
and reverence for oneself as a servant of God, is the 
basis of every form of religion. The method of 
expression of reverence to God varies with every 
sect and denomination. What sect or denomina- 
tion a boy belongs to depends, as a rule, on his 
parents' wishes. It is they who decide. It is our 
business to respect their wishes and to second their 
efforts to inculcate reverence, whatever form of 
religion the boy professes. 

It must be remembered that we have in our 
Movement boys of almost every religious belief, 
and it is, therefore, impossible to lay down definite 
rules for guidance in religious teaching. 

The following is the attitude of the Scout Move- 
ment as regards religion approved by the heads of 
all the different denominations on our Council : 

1 ' (a) It is expected that every Scout shall belong to 
some religious denomination, and attend its services. 

' ' (b) Where a Troop is composed of members of 
one particular form of religion, it is hoped that the 
Scoutmaster will arrange such denominational relig- 
ious observances and instruction as he, in consul- 
tation with its Chaplain or other religious authority, 
may consider best. 

1 ' (c) Where a Troop consists of Scouts of various 

Service for Others 121 

religions they should be encouraged to attend the 
service of their own denomination, and in camp, any 
form of daily prayer and of weekly Divine service 
should be of the simplest character, attendance being 

If the Scoutmaster takes this pronouncement 
as his guide he cannot go far wrong. 

Training. — I am perfectly convinced that there 
are more ways than one by which reverence may 
be inculcated. The solution depends on the 
individual character and circumstances of the boy, 
whether he is a "hooligan" or a "mother's dar- 
ling." The training that may suit the one may 
not have much effect on the other. It is for the 
teacher, whether Scoutmaster or Chaplain, to 
select the right one. 

While I am speaking on religious training in 
England, please don't think that I am reiterating 
the theory which is so lavishly written on this 
particular subject. I speak from a fairly wide 
personal experience, having had some thousands 
of young men through my hands, and my expe- 
rience only tallies with that of most authorities 
whom I have consulted. The conclusion come to 
is that the actions of a very large proportion of our 
men are, at present, very little guided by religious 

This may be attributed to a great extent to the 
fact that again instruction instead of education 
has been employed in the religious training of the 
boy, and that in some instances the teaching is 

122 Aids to Scoutmastership 

undertaken by people who have no real experience 
or proper training for the work. 

The consequence has been that the best boys in 
the Bible-class or Sunday School have grasped the 
idea, but in many cases they have, by perfection 
in the letter, missed the spirit of the teaching and 
have become zealots with a restricted outlook, 
while the majority have never really been enthused 
and have, as soon as they have left the class or 
school, lapsed into indifference and irreligion, and 
there has been no hand to retain them at the 
critical and important time of their lives, i.e., six- 
teen to twenty-four. 

The disappointing results in religious training 
have been recognised by the authorities, and the 
more thorough training now inaugurated for teach- 
ers in Sunday Schools and the like promises a very 
different result for religious education in the future. 

It is not given to every man to be a good teacher 
of religion, and often the most earnest are the 
greatest failures — and without knowing it. 

We have, fortunately, a number of exceptionally 
well qualified men in this respect among our Scout- 
masters, but there must also be a number who are 
doubtful as to their powers, and where a man feels 
this, he does well to get a Chaplain, or other expe- 
rienced teacher, for his Troop. 

On the practical side, however, the Scoutmaster 
can in every case do an immense amount towards 
helping the religious teacher, just as he can help 
the schoolmaster by inculcating in his boys, in 

Service for Others 123 

camp and club, the practical application of what 
they have been learning in theory in the school. 

In denominational Troops there is, as a rule, a 
Troop Chaplain, and the Scoutmaster should, as. 
stated in Clause 2 of our Headquarters Religious 
Policy, consult with him on all questions of relig- 
ious instruction 

It should be clearly understood that a Troop 
can be confined entirely to one particular church 
or denomination (for example, Church of England 
officers and boys, Roman Catholics, Wesleyans, or 
the like). 

For the purpose of its religious training, a service 
or class can be held, called a "Scouts' Own," 
"Scout Guild," or such other name as may be 
thought best. I commend to your careful con- 
sideration and study the valuable and interesting 
results of the Manchester Conference on the sub- 
ject of "How to Run a Scouts' Own." 

The majority, however, of our Troops are 
interdenominational, having boys of different 
forms of belief in their ranks. 

For these Troops a Chaplain seems hardly 
required because the boys should be sent to their 
own clergy and pastors for denominational relig- 
ious instruction. 

Still, for many of these Troops a "Scouts' Own" 
or class of some kind on a Sunday has been found 
very helpful for inspiring the right Scout spirit, 
but they need to be organised and carried on with 
care and tact. The Scoutmaster should always 

124 Aids to Scoutmastership 

consult the parents and the boys, clergy and pas- 
tors, as a first step. 

Other Troops in the slums have lads of practi- 
cally no religion of any kind, and their parents are 
little or no help to them. Naturally, these require 
different handling and methods of training from 
those boys in whom religion has been well grounded. 

Here, again, Scouting comes very practically to 
the aid of the teacher, and has already given extra- 
ordinarily good results. 

The practical way in which Scouting can help is 
through the following : 

(a) Personal example of the Scoutmaster. 

(b) Nature study. 

(c) Good turns. 

(d) Missioner service. 

(e) Retention of the older boy. 

(a) Personal example 

It is a common saying that an Englishman hates 
parading his religion; that he is often a man who 
does his duties from a religious conviction, but 
does not "for a pretence make long prayers" in 

There is no doubt whatever that in the boys' 
eyes it is what the man does that counts and not so 
much what he says. 

A Scoutmaster has, therefore, the greatest re- 
sponsibility on his shoulders for doing the right 
thing from the right motives, and for letting it be 

Service for Others 125 

seen that he does so, but without making a parade 
of it. 

Here, again, the attitude of elder brother rather 
than of teacher tells with the greater force. 

(b) Nature Study. 

It has been said that "more men have been led 
to God through His handiwork than have ever 
been introduced by the preacher." 

"Sermons in stones?" Yes, there are sermons 
in the observation of Nature, say, in bird life, the 
formation of every feather identical with that of 
the same species ten thousand miles away, the 
migration, the nesting, the colouring of the egg, 
the growth of the young, the mothering, the feed- 
ing, the flying power — all done without the aid of 
man, but under the law of the Creator; these are 
the best of sermons for boys. 

The flowers in their orders, and plants of every 
kind, their buds and bark, the animals and their 
habits and species. Then the stars in the Hea- 
vens, with their appointed places and ordered 
moves in space, give to everyone the first concep- 
tion of Infinity and of the vast scheme of his Crea- 
tor where man is of so small account. All these 
have a fascination for boys, which appeals in an 
absorbing degree to their inquisitiveness and pow- 
ers of observation, and leads them directly to 
recognise the hand of God in this world of wonders, 
if only someone introduces them to it. 

The wonder to me of all wonders is how some 

i26 Aids to Scout mastership 

teachers have neglected this easy and unfailing 
means of education and have struggled to impose 
Biblical instruction as the first step towards getting 
a restless, full-spirited boy to think of higher 

(c) Good Turns. 

With a little encouragement on the part of the 
Scoutmaster the practice of daily good turns soon 
becomes a sort of fashion with boys, and it is the 
very best step towards making a Christian in fact, 
and not merely in theory. The boy has a natural 
instinct for good if he only sees a practical way 
to exercise it, and this good turn business meets it 
and develops it, and in developing it brings out the 
spirit of Christian charity towards his neighbour. 

This expression of his will to good, is more 
effective, more natural to the boy, and more in 
accordance with the Scout method than his passive 
acceptance of instructive precepts. 

id) Missioner Service. 

The development is then carried on to a higher 
and wider standard through the practice of the 
test-items of the Missioners' Social Service Badge. 

(e) Retention of the older boy. 

So soon as the ordinary boy has begun to get a 
scholastic knowledge of reading, writing, and 
arithmetic, together with a few practices of physi- 
cal drill, he is sent out into the world, at the age of 

Service for Others 127 

fourteen, as fit and equipped for making his career 
as a good working citizen. 

Excellent technical schools are then open to him 
as well as continuation classes, if he likes to go to 
them, or if his parents insist on his attending 
after his day's work is over. The best boys go, 
and get a good final polish. 

But what about the average and the bad ? They 
are allowed to slide away — just at the one period of 
their life when they most of all need continuation 
and completion of what they have been learning, 
just at the time of their physical, mental, and moral 
change into what they are going to be for the rest 
of their life. 

The new Education Act is to correct this, but 
only promises to do so in a technical and partial 

This is where the Scout Movement can do so 
much for the lad, and it is for this important work 
that we have organised the Rovers or Senior 
Branch of the Movement; and we have already 
found success in this departure as a means to retain 
the boy, to keep in touch with him, and to inspire 
him with the best ideals, at this his cross-roads, 
for good or evil. 

See Rules for Rover Scouts. 


In speaking of the forms of reverence which 
the boy should be encouraged to develop, we must 


128 Aids to Scoutmastership 

not omit the important one of reverence for him- 
self, that is self-respect in its highest form. This 
can well be inculcated through nature study as a 
preliminary step. The anatomy of plants, or 
birds, or shell-fish may be studied and shown to be 
the wonderful work of the Creator. Then the 
boy's own anatomy can be studied in a similar 
light; the skeleton and the flesh, muscle, nerves, 
and sinews built upon it, the blood flow and the 
breathing, the brain and control of action, all 
repeated, down to the smallest details, in millions 
of human beings, yet no two are exactly alike in 
face or finger prints. Raise the boy's idea of the 
wonderful body which is given to him to keep and 
develop as God's own handiwork and temple; one 
which is physically capable of good work and 
brave deeds if guided by sense of duty and chiv- 
alry, that is by a high moral tone. 

Thus is engendered self-respect. 

This, of course, must not be preached to a lad in 
so many words and then left to fructify, but should 
be inferred and expected in all one's dealings with 
him. Especially it can be promoted by giving 
the boy responsibility, and by trusting him as an 
honourable being to carry out his duty to the best 
of his ability, and by treating him with respect and 
consideration, without spoiling him. 


In addition to reverence to God and to one's 
neighbour, loyalty to the King as head of our 

Service for Others 129 

national government and of the British race is 

Loyalty to the King signifies loyalty to our 
country and our kind. Political excitement is apt 
to turn ecstatic people's minds to such a degree 
that, in seeing their own point of view, they are 
apt to forget that of others, and therefore they fail 
to realise the danger it may bring to the welfare 
and happiness of their fellow-countrymen later on. 
Loyalty to King and country is of the highest 
value for keeping men's views balanced and in the 
proper perspective. The external signs, such as 
saluting the flag, cheering the King, and so on, 
help in promoting this, but the essential thing is 
the development of the true spirit which underlies 
such demonstrations. I had a little argument 
lately with one who as a free-born Briton did not 
see why he should promise allegiance to the King. 
I asked him whether he proposed to be loyal to the 
Empire or would he be willing to let down one of 
the Overseas British States if it were in danger? 
Oh no, he was all for the Empire being kept up, 
otherwise we should lose our national prosperity. 
But then an Empire, like every other national 
organisation, needs a head to it: even the Bol- 
sheviks, with their equality for all, have a leader 
(who besides having unlimited motor cars and 
wives, has the power of life and death over his 
subjects). Yes, that's right, a head is necessary, 
but he should be elected by the voice of the peoj >le. 
Well, do you think Canada will agree to have as 

130 Aids to Scoutmastership 

their head a man from Australia, or would Austra- 
lia accept a favourite Conservative M.P. from 
England? I don't think. Has the office of King 
ever been abused or failed in success under its 
present limiting constitution? He could not, for 
instance, have attended the Peace Conference at 
Versailles and have laid down a policy for his 
country to follow, in the way that a more auto- 
cratic ruler was able to do. 

Loyalty to himself on the part of the boy — that 
is, to his better conscience — is the great step to 
self-realisation. Loyalty to others is proved by 
self-expression and action rather than by profes- 
sion. Service for others and self-sacrifice must 
necessarily include readiness to serve one's country 
should the necessity arise for protecting it against 
foreign aggression ; that is the duty of every citizen. 
But this does not mean that he is to develop a 
bloodthirsty or aggressive spirit, nor that the boy 
need be trained to military duties and ideas of 
fighting. This can be left until he is of an age to 
judge for himself. At the same time rifle practice 
is a good preparation and does a boy no harm 
morally ; on the contrary, it does him good, since it 
promotes concentration, steadiness of nerve, eye- 
sight, exactness, etc. Moreover, it will stand him 
in good stead should he ever be required to help in 
the defence of his country, or, as will frequently 
be the case in a colony, in defence of his home 
against raids by savages, or, on board ship, by 

Service for Others 131 

Go by the Pace of the Slowest 

Once I asked a Scout coming away from a 
special Scout church service what was the text on 
which the preacher had spoken ? 

"Quit ye like men," the boy replied. 

"Yes, and what does that mean?" 

"Well, I am not quite sure, but I think that it 
means that on quitting the church we were to go 
out like grown-ups." 

The preacher had had his opportunity with a 
boy who noticed the text, but he had travelled 
into phrases and ideas far above the understanding 
of his audience. It is a mistake so obvious that 
one might think that few would fall into it, but, 
unfortunately, the opposite is the case. High- 
flying is not only common, but usual. I have seen 
prayer-books for boys full of long erudite suppli- 
cations. I would rather hear the familiar, "Oh, 
Lord, grant there may be some of the pudding left 
for me when it has gone the round, " than hear a 
little fellow recite by heart petitions which are 
meaningless to him. 

Let his prayers come from the heart, not said by 

The main principles which I personally prefer in 
prayers are that they should be short, expressed 
in the simplest language, and based on one of two 
ideas : 

To thank God for blessings or enjoyments 

132 Aids to Scoutmastership 

To ask for moral protection, strength, or guid- 
ance in doing something for God in return. 

There may be many difficulties as regard the 
definition of the religious training in our Move- 
ment where so many different denominations exist, 
and the details of the expression of duty to God 
have, therefore, to be left largely in the hands of 
the local authority. But there is no difficulty at 
all in suggesting the line to take on the human 
side, since direct duty to one's neighbour is implied 
in almost every form of belief. Scouting is a real 
help to the practice of this. As a first point it is 
necessary to remark that duty to one's neighbour 
is not confined to giving charity — it needs more 
than that — it often demands self-sacrifice to be 


If I were asked what is the prevailing vice in our 
nation I should say — Selfishness. You may not 
agree with this at first sight, but look into it and I 
believe you will come to the same conclusion. 
Most crimes, as recognised by law, come from 
the indulgence of selfishness, from a desire to 
acquire, to defeat, or to wreak vengeance. The 
average man will gladly give a subscription to feed 
the poor and will feel satisfied that he has then 
done his duty, but he is not going to dock himself 
of his own food and good wine to effect a saving for 
that purpose. 

Selfishness exists in a thousand different ways. 

Service to Others 133 

Take, for instance, party politics. Men here get 
to see a question, which obviously has two sides to 
it, exactly as if there were only one possible side, 
namely, their own, and they then get to hate 
another man who looks upon it from the other side. 
The result may lead men on to commit the greatest 
crimes under high-sounding names. In the same 
way, wars between nations come about from nei- 
ther party being able to see the other's point of 
view, being obsessed entirely by their own inter- 
ests. So, too, class differences arise from each 
seeing only their own status and disliking that 
of the other. Strikes, too, and lock-outs are 
frequently the outcome of developed selfishness. 
In many cases, employers have failed to see that 
a hard-working man should, in justice, get a share 
of the goods of the world in return for his effort, 
and not be condemned to perpetual servitude 
simply to secure a certain margin of profits for the 
shareholders. On the other hand, the worker has 
to recognise that without capital there would be no 
work on a large scale, and there can be no capital 
without some return to the subscribers for the risks 
they face in subscribing. 

In one's newspaper every day one sees examples 
of selfishness when one reads the letters of these 
innumerable small-minded men who, at every 
little grievance, rush headlong to "write to the 
papers." And so it goes on, down to the children 
playing their games in the streets; the moment 
that one is dissatisfied at not getting his share of 

134 Aids to Scoutmastership 

winning he abruptly leaves the scene remarking, 
"I shan't play any more!" The fact that he 
upsets the fun of the others does not appeal to him 
— unless it be satisfying to his spite. 

To Eradicate Selfishness 

The Scouting practices suggested in the table of 
training given on p. 23 tend in a practical way to 
educate the boy out of the groove of selfishness. 
Once he becomes charitable he is well on the way 
to overcome or to eradicate the danger of this 
habit. The minor good turns which are part of 
his faith are in themselves the first step. Nat 1 .re 
study and making friends with animals increase 
the kindly feeling within him and overcome the 
trait of cruelty which is said to be inherent in 
every boy (although, personally, I am not sure 
that it is so general as is supposed). From these 
minor good turns he goes on to learn first aid and 
help to the injured, and in the natural sequence of 
learning how to save life in the case of accidents he 
develops a sense of duty to others and a readiness 
to sacrifice himself in danger. This again, leads 
up to the idea of sacrifice for others, for his home, 
and for his country, thereby leading to patriotism 
and loyalty of a higher type than that of merely 
ecstatic flag-waving. 

Fair Play 

The idea of fair play is above all, the one which 
can be best instilled into boys and leads them to 

Service to Others 135 

that strong view of justice which should be part of 
their character, if they are going to make really 
good citizens. 

This habit of seeing things from the other fel- 
low's point of view can be developed in outdoor 
games where fair play is essential, whether it is in 
football or hockey, boxing or wrestling. During 
the game the strictest rules are observed which 
mean self-restraint and good temper on the part 
of the players, and at the end it is the proper form 
that the victor should sympathise with the one 
who is conquered, and that the opponent should 
be the first to cheer and congratulate the winner. 

This should be made the practice until it be- 
comes the habit. 

These are little points which a Scoutmaster can 
pay close attention to, since they have a big mean- 
ing later on in the character of the boy. The Brit- 
ish have always been proverbial for their sense 
of fair play, whether in prize-fighting or in war. 
And we have always admired those to whom fair 
play was inherent — even among savages. The 
Maoris in their war with us in New Zealand showed 
an instinctive chivalry which appealed strongly to 
us when we were in the field against them, and it 
was almost amazing to note the extent to which 
they expected chivalry in return. On one occasion 
one heard of their calling for a truce with a white 
flag because they had run out of ammunition, and 
asked for time to renew their supply. On another 
when they had been surrounded for some days in 

136 Aids to Scoutmastership 

a mountain fastness they sent a messenger under a 
white flag to inform the British commander that 
he was camped on their only water supply, and 
that unless he would let them have water they 
would not be able to go on fighting ! 

Possibly one reason for the ingrained feeling of 
chivalry in our nation is the fact that the code of 
the mediaeval knights took hold of the country so 
long ago as a.d. 500, when King Arthur made the 
rules for his Knights of the Round Table which 
have been the foundation for the conduct of gentle- 
men ever since that day. He dedicated the Order 
of St. George. The rules as they were republished 
in the time of Henry VII. are as follows: 

1. They were never to put off their armour, ex- 

cept for the purpose of rest at night. 

2. They were to search for adventures wherein 

to attain "bruyt and renown." 

3. To defend the poor and weak. 

4. To give help to any who should ask it in a 

just quarrel. 

5. Not to offend one another. 

6. To fight for the defence and welfare of England. 

7. To work for honour rather than profit. 

8. Never to break a promise for any reason what- 


9. To sacrifice themselves for the honour of their 

10. "Sooner choose to die honestly than to fly 

Service to Others 137 

A further valuable aid to the training in fairness 
and unselfishness is the holding of debates amongst 
the boys on subjects that interest them and which 
lend themselves to argument on both sides. This 
is to get them into the way of recognising that 
every important question has two sides to it, and 
that they should not be carried away by the elo- 
quence of one orator before they have heard what 
the defender of the other side has to say on the 
subject, and that they should then weigh the evi- 
dence of both sides for themselves before making 
up their mind which part they should take. 

A practical step in ensuring this is not to vote by 
show of hands, where the hesitating or inattentive 
boy votes according to the majority. Each 
should record his vote "aye" or "no" on a slip of 
paper and hand it in. This ensures his making 
up his mind for himself after duly weighing both 
sides of the question. 

In the same way mock trials or arbitration of 
quarrels, if carried out seriously and on the lines 
of a law court, are of the greatest value in teaching 
the boys the same idea of justice and fair play, 
and also give them a minor experience of what 
their civic duties may be as jurymen or witnesses 
later on. The Court of Honour in the Troop is 
another step in the same direction, and as the boys 
here have a real responsibility by being members 
of the Court, the seriousness of their views is 
brought home to them all the more, and encourages 
them to think out carefully the right line to take 

138 Aids to Scout mastership 

when they have heard all the arguments on both 

Thus a Scoutmaster, who uses his ingenuity 
towards the end of teaching unselfishness, fair 
play, and sense of duty to others, may make ample 
opportunities, whether indoors or out, for training 
his Scouts. Of all the subjects with which we 
are dealing, I believe this to be one of the most 
important towards self-governing citizenship, 
though I fear I have only touched upon it in a 
very sketchy manner. 

Service for the Community 

Public services offer the best opening for practi- 
cal training in sense of duty to the community, 
patriotism, and self-sacrifice through expression. 

The work of the Sea Scouts during the war in 
voluntarily taking up the arduous duties of Coast- 
watching was in itself an example among many of 
the keenness of the lads to do good work, and of 
their readiness to make themselves efficient where 
they see a good object. In this direction lies a 
powerful means of holding the older boy, and of 
developing on practical lines the ideal of citizen- 

The Boy Scout Fire and Accident Service for 
Towns and Villages is specially applicable to 
Rovers, and acts as an attractive force to the older 
boy while giving him public services to train for and 
to render. 

Service to Others 139 

A Troop is organised, equipped, and trained 
primarily as a fire brigade, but with the further 
ability to deal with all kinds of accidents that are 
possible in the neighbourhood. Such, for instance, 

Street accidents, to or through motor-cars, 

trams, carts, etc. 
Gas, chemical or other explosions. 
Floods or inundations. 
Electric accidents. 
Railway accidents. 
Fallen trees or buildings. 
Tee accidents. 

Bathing or boating accidents. 
Savage animals — bulls, dogs, vicious horses, etc. 
Machinery accidents. 
Aeroplane crashes. 
Shipwrecks, etc. 

This would demand, in addition to the drill, 
rescue, and first-aid required for fire brigade work, 
knowledge and practice in methods of extricating 
and rescuing, and rendering the proper first-aid 
in each class of work; such as — 

Knowledge of gases, and chemicals, both light 
and heavy. 

Handling of boats, improvising rafts, use of light 
line, jacking, levering. 

Use of lifebuoys, life-saving in the water, arti- 
ficial respiration, etc. 

140 Aids to Scoutmastership 

How to deal with savage animals. 
Stopping running machinery. 
How to deal with electric live wires, burning 
petrol, etc. 

In some cases it may be best for each Patrol to 
specialise in a particular form of accident, but 
generally if the Patrols practise all in turn they 
arrive at complete efficiency for the whole Troop. 

Organisation for an accident would, however, 
confer specific duties on each Patrol, e.g. a Patrol of 
rescuers, first-aiders, crowd holders, messengers, 
apparatus, etc. 

The system of calling up on an alarm, and a 
roster of duty, the collection of necessary appara- 
tus, etc., will vary according to local conditions. 

The variety of work to be done supplies a whole 
series of activities such as should appeal to the 

Frequent dummy calls to practice on improvised 
accidents are essential to attaining efficiency and 

As efficiency becomes evident public interest will 
be aroused probably to a helpful degree. The 
scheme will then be recognised as having a double 
value, an education for the boys, and a blessing for 
the community. 

Service to Others 



Subject V. — Service to Others 


ist Week. — Reverence. 

Duty to God and neigh- 

Duty to King and 

2D Week. Service for 


3D Week. — Service for 


Study and Practice 

Practice good turns. 

Church parade — how ar- 
ranged and carried out in 


"Scouts' Own." 

Nature study by observa- 
tion — walks, or visits 
to museums, including 
plants, birds, animals, 

Star study. 

Special police duty. 

Marksmanship for pro- 
tection of women and 

Training for Missioner's 
Badge in first-aid, nurs- 
ing, sanitation, diet, 
and other details. 

Training for Pathfinder's 

Practice of Missioner's 

Individual preparedness ; 
also organisation of 
Troops in Patrols for 
different duties con- 
nected with accidents, 

i4 2 Aids to Scoutmastership 

e.g. holding back crowd, 
bringing help, rescuing, 
applying first-aid, am- 
bulance work, etc., for 
such accidents as fire, 
drowning, runaway 
horses, suicides, wrecks, 
panics, gas poisoning, 
electric shock, aero- 
plane fall, etc. 

Practice with rocket ap- 
paratus, fire-escape, 
hose, runaway horse, 
saving life in water, on 
railway, etc. 
4TH Week. — Unselfish- Further practice of fore- 
ness. going. 

Fair play. Games involving fairness 

Justice. and adherence to rules. 

(Losers to applaud win- 

Patrol Leaders' Confer- 

Debating society; and 

Trial by jury to insure 
hearing both sides and 
then making up minds 
with fairness. 
Week-end Camp. On Saturday further prac- 

tice of third and fourth 
weeks as above. 

On Sunday practice of 
first and second weeks 
as above. 

What Scouting can do towards it 

THE many questions which have been put to 
me as to what is our attitude in the Scout 
Movement towards reconstruction after the 
war, shows what an amount of interest is already 
being aroused in that direction among our officers ; 
and this encourages the conviction that it is in our 
power to do a valuable work in that line. 

I have often said this before, but have evidently 
been rather vague in defining exactly what that 
line is. 

Well, considering the difficulty of prophesying 
what is likely to come after the peace it is not an 
easy thing even to suggest, much less to lay down, 
a definite scheme. 

But a few points are fixed and certain, and they 
will help us on our way. 

In the first place, as someone has said lately, 
"If the war does not teach lessons that will so 
dominate those who survive it, and those who suc- 
ceed them, as to make new things possible, then the 
war will be the greatest catastrophe . . . of which 
mankind has any record." 

That statement no one will gainsay.. 

i44 Aids to Scoutmastership 

Let us think what is a main evil in our midst 
that ought to be remedied, and, through the light 
and experience of the war, possibly could be reme- 
died for "those who succeed us," if proper steps 
were taken. 

To my mind the condition of the lower working 
(I won't use the word ' ' class. ' ' I would like to see 
that word abolished for ever, with all the harm 
that it has done) men and women must and ought 
to be bettered. 

One obstacle to bringing this about has been the 
barrier between the "classes," between Capital 
and Labour, etc. 

And yet we are by nature all fellow-creatures, 
even of the same blood and family; the class 
boundary is an entirely artificial erection, and can, 
therefore, be pulled down if we only set our minds 
to it. This is one lesson which we may well take 
to heart from the war. 

Indeed, the war has almost done the trick for us 
with its conscription of all, rich and poor without 
distinction, with its common sharing of hardship 
and danger, and its common sacrifice for a common 
ideal at the Front, coupled with the common 
sorrow and the common service of those behind the 
scenes at home. 

Are we after the war to allow the fellow-feeling 
thereby engendered to be dissipated by a revival of 
those miserable party politics and social barriers 
and industrial quarrels that had brought about such 
bitter conditions in pre-war days? God forbid! 

Reconstruction 1 45 

The war will here have helped us if only we 
determine to make the best use of it. Our aim 
should be to mingle class with class, and to bring 
about a happier and more human life for all, so 
that the poorer shall reap his share of enjoyment 
just as much as his more well-to-do brother; the 
employer should be humanised to the extent of 
sympathising and dealing squarely and liberally 
with his employees; the worker should be shown 
how to use his means to the best advantage in 
making for himself a better home and a fuller life. 
Both parties should realise that by combination of 
effort they can bring about better conditions for 

Education comes into the question as a key — 
and mainly education in character. 

Unselfishness, self-discipline, wider fellow-feel- 
ing, sense of honour and duty should be implanted, 
and such attributes as enable a man, no matter 
what his standing, to look beyond his own immedi- 
ate ledger or bench to see the good of his work for 
the community, putting into his routine some ser- 
vice for others as well as for himself, developing 
also some perception of what is beautiful in nature, 
in art, and in literature, so that his higher interests 
may be aroused, and he may get enjoyment from 
his surroundings whatever they may be. 

These are points of which we in the Scout Move- 
ment can do much to impart the elements and to 
lay the foundations. 


Character and Culture for All 

LORD CREWE spoke recently of the changes 
which have come over the aims in educa- 
tion. These a few years ago were directed 
to making children "efficient," as an improve- 
ment on the previous thesis of merely "giving 
them knowledge"; but this is no longer con- 
sidered good enough. 

Moral qualities are now being aimed at — in fact, 
character; but the steps for getting these are to a 
considerable extent nebulous and vague. 

Mr. Clynes, during his recent visit to Cam- 
bridge, pointed out that "the blot of modern 
civilisation has been the failure to raise the manual 
worker from the level of drudge and to secure for 
him opportunities for culture and recreation. 

1 ' The remedy is partly a matter of wages, and of 
better understanding between employers and 
employed, and largely a matter of character-train- 
ing for the man himself." 

"A liberal education for all" is now very much 
the cry. The new Education Act, it is hoped, will 


Education Act and the Boy Scout 147 

give an opening in that direction. But one cannot 
help feeling that, after all, character is the first and 
essential development, and our other Scout train- 
ing aims in handicraft, health, and service, are not 
far behind it in value. 

This high value was evidently assigned to 
character by many in the House of Lords during 
the passage of the Education Bill. 

Only by a margin of eight votes did that Bill 
fail to include the Boy Scouts' training in its pro- 
visions, as an example of practical character 

Lord Sydenham moved an amendment to the 
effect that training in character and citizenship 
should form a definite part of the scheme "on the 
lines practised by the Boy Scouts," etc. 

The fact that several noble lords spoke in sup- 
port and that so good a proportion of those present 
recorded their vote in our favour is a very gratify- 
ing indication that we are working on the right 

The Act is a great accomplishment in bringing 
education more up to the needs of the times, but 
it will need a further Act to bring it on terms with 
the future. 


American Approval of our Principles 

AVERY suggestive book at the present critical 
time, when we are trying to see the right 
direction in which to point our boys' noses, 
is The Froblems of Reconstruction, published by 
Fisher Unwin. One among very many of its themes 
of thought is the view, quoted by Guy Kendall (of 
the Workers' Education Association) in his chapter 
on "The Influence of Vocation on School Educa- 
tion" — namely, that "Education in Continuation 
Schools should be directed solely towards the de- 
velopment of the bodies, minds, and characters of 
the pupils, and should be intimately related to 
their environment and interest." Giving due elas- 
ticity to the meaning of the word ' ' solely ' ' and ' ' en- 
vironment" in this statement, one can claim that 
our aims in the Scout Movement accord very 
closely with. the ideas of the Workers' Education 
Association. And if these embody the views of 
Labour generally we are working as is our aim in 
sympathy with them. 

Indeed, in America the Labour Party have made 

The Attitude of Labour 149 

a definite pronouncement on the Scout Movement. 
On the personal side their opinion of me was 
distinctly unflattering, though perhaps natural; 
but on the whole question it was favourable to us. 

The American Federation of Labour held an 
inquiry in Illinois into the aims, methods, and 
organisation of the Boy Scouts of America, and 
this was the conclusion they came to. 

"In the Boy Scout Movement part is good and 
part is bad. The bad part comes from England, 
and was devised by General Baden-Powell. . . . 
He was a commander in the Boer War, and could 
not help seeing how much inferior the British 
soldiers were to the Boers. He set to work his 
Boy Scout Movement, which would give the 
British soldiers the physical stamina of the Boers, 
and at the same time hold them in subserviency 
to the employing interest." 

So there you have the objects that underlie 
Scouting fully exposed ! 

I never stated these points in the Handbook, 
nor do I think they can be quite correct, for I 
devised Scouting before the Boer War took place; 
and in that war I never noticed this marked inferi- 
ority of the British soldier to the Boer; nor does 
subserviency fit in with our expressed aim of de- 
veloping the individual standing and initiative of 
the boy. 

However, having vented their objection to me 
the committee eventually took the right line and 
approved of the principles of the Movement in a 

150 Aids to Scoutmastership 

resolution to the effect that — ''Inasmuch as the 
Movement of the Boy Scouts of America is under 
the watchful eye of the officers of the American 
Federation of Labour, your committee recommend 
that we approve of this organisation, and that we 
be guided by these conclusions till we feel justified 
in following some other course. 

"We further recommend that the United States 
Boy Scout organisation (an imitation Movement) 
be disapproved of, and all other independent 
movements of a similar character, because of their 
teachings of militarism and blind obedience and 
subservience to the employing interest. 

"In recommending approval of the Boy Scouts 
of America, we suggest that this organisation be 
urged to a constantly closer sympathetic attitude 
towards the organised Labour Movement in its 
work and struggle for the achievement of a higher 
material, political, moral, and social standard for 
the toilers of our country." 

Barring the political side of the question, that is 
just what we are after. I feel all the more con- 
fident now, that our aims in the Scout Movement 
will commend themselves to those who are en- 
deavouring to better the conditions of the work- 
ing man, since we encourage the boy to develop 
his individuality in character and intelligence, in 
skill and handicraft, in health and strength, and in 
service for his fellows ; and these are essentially on 
the line desired for putting the next generation on 
a better footing for carrying out for themselves 

The Attitude of Labour 151 

prosperous careers and for enjoying to greater 
fulness, the life that God has given them. 

We want to give to every boy — especially the 
poorest — his chance to succeed in life. 

But I think that Labour need not trouble to 
keep, a "watchful eye" upon us but to tell us in 
what way we can best be of use to their boys and 
utilise us. 

We can undoubtedly do them valuable service. 
I have it from several prominent Labour men that 
they realise that Labour will before long be a 
greater power in the Government of our country 
than heretofore. This will be the case in most 
other countries too. But these men also realised 
that their greatest handicap is the want of capable 
leaders. It is a shortcoming that will eventually 
correct itself, but without exceptional leaders, 
with a rank and file unaccustomed to contest their 
personal views for the good of the whole, effective 
direction is difficult. 

The Times has lately said : "Labour is coming up 
hand over hand. It is clearly trusted by a very 
large number of the electorate. It needs more 
education, a wider vision and better leadership. As 
it is destined to be one of the two great parties 
in the State it is for the nation to mould it into an 
effective instrument of national progress." 

That is just where we can help by giving the 
young worker a good start in those directions. 

The Crucible of the Future 

THE world's ingredients have been thrown into 
the melting pot of war, material, spiritual, 
commercial, political, financial, humanistic; 
and what is going to come out of it when the proc- 
ess is over — who can tell ? 

If the resultant amalgam is to be a dud then the 
war will have been a tragedy indeed ; the sacrifice 
of our men, the best blood of our race, and our 
treasure will have been wasted. 

On the other hand, the fusion of the great na- 
tions in a common lofty ideal, coupled with the 
streaming off of the dross, may, if properly handled 
and treated, produce a true metal for carrying out 
the work of the world on a nobler scale than here- 
There is an immense and unprecedented possi- 
bility for good if we, and those who are coming after 
us, are prepared to utilise it. 

Unity, concord, and high purpose, with sane 
democracy, will do it. 

But the war has shown how dangerously close 
under the surface of our vaunted civilisation still 
lie savagery, blindness, and insane licence. 

Be Ye Prepared 153 

The war is not over, the victory is not finally 
won, even though the fighting on the battlefield 
may be finished. There is yet a dangerous and 
anxious time before the Nation, as there is before 
the world, while the metal forged by the war is 
being fashioned for use. 


Social evolution is going on, though many of us 
are blind to it. 

Reconstruction after the war may bring about 
the best democratic government with ultimate 
prosperity and peace for all; at the same time it 
may not, unless we are very careful. There are 
"hidden hands" at work. 

There are men who through their orators and 
their literature preach class hatred and "down 
with everything," without having any construc- 
tive aim before them. It is simple mad Bolshevism 
such as might bring about not merely the downfall 
of capitalists, but the ruin of the great mass of 
quiet, steady-going citizens and wage-earners. 

These men are ignorant themselves and they 
trade upon the ignorance of others. 

They are even, in some cases, mentally deficient. 
I have seen some of them myself in a perfectly 
hysterical condition over nothing at all. Yet these 
lead many after them through loud-voiced asser- 

At one period of the war these Bolshevists were 

154 Aids to Scoutmastership 

in evidence in America, but later little was heard 
of them. President Wilson's appeal for respect to 
law and order indicates the reason. 

Recognising the danger of their vapourings, 
certain patriotic citizens formed themselves into a 
masked band of the "Ku-Klux" type, and a good 
number of these Bolshies suffered the extreme 
penalty of lynch law. The rest in consequence 
took the hint and have made themselves scarce. 
Labour in America, unhampered by these gentry, 
was sound and solid, and out to win the war. 

But here in England, comparatively few people 
realise the danger that is growing up in our midst, 
few have the imagination to foresee what it may 
bring upon us later on. What is the remedy? 

Well, Ku-Klux methods may be considered too 
drastic over here. There is another way, and 
that is to strengthen our next contingent of citizens 
in mind and character, so that they are not liable 
to be led astray by the first hysterical tub thumper 
they hear. 

It is our object in the Scout Movement to train 
them to be level-headed and British, to give fair 
play to all, and to be unselfish in themselves, to be 
manly and responsible human beings . Thus our aims 
have commended themselves to the Labour leaders. 

A Parliament of Boys 

Most of the present boys will have some voice 
in the government of the countrv before long, and 

Be Ye Prepared 155 

without touching on politics we are preparing 
them for it by giving them elementary self-govern- 

Can you imagine some four or five hundred boys 
collected in conference without more than one 
grown-up among them — and he taking a back 

"Jolly old bear garden," you would surmise. 
So did I the first time, but I have been to over a 
dozen of such conferences of Patrol Leaders and 
have come away more impressed every time. 

The high level of subjects, the earnestness and 
decorum of the audience, the effective self-expres- 
sion of the speakers and the fairness and judgment 
displayed in voting all speak to a very valuable 
school for civic duties. 

A School for Leaders 

Some great man has said that ' ' In order to be a 
leader a man must first learn how to obey." 

Experience seems to show that it is quite as 
necessary that he should learn how to lead. One 
has known loads of men who were excellent at 
obeying, but were only blatant bullies the moment 
they were promoted to command. 

One sees this in the workshop, just as one sees 
it in the Army. 

A leader does not drive with his power, he leads 
through his personality. Given a man who can 
see widely, who knows his own mind, can take 

156 Aids to Scoutmastership 

responsibility, is fair and human — and people will 
follow him. "Fours right" may teach a fellow 
how to command but not necessarily how to lead. 

The German officer orders his men to "Go on"; 
the British substitute is, "Come on, lads." 

Magistrates have asked us whether we cannot 
take boys from the police-court who have been 
there charged with some of the boyish delinquen- 
cies which hardly amount to crime, but are rather 
the outcome of high spirits and absence of parental 
control. This, of course, we could do, and are 
doing in many cases, provided that they are not 
rushed on to us in large numbers. The objection 
to such a step and the reasons in favour of it were 
discussed and summed up at a Patrol Leaders' 
Conference lately, where one Leader said that to 
take a bad boy into a Patrol was to put a rotten 
apple into a barrel of sound ones and damage 
the lot. But he was countered by the other 
Patrol Leader who passionately cried: "My father 
is a horsedealer; when he has one bad horse to deal 
with he puts him into a team of three other steady 
ones — they soon set him right. That's what we as 
Scouts have got to do with the rotter." 

For the elementary training in justice and ad- 
ministration the Court of Honour, composed of 
Patrol Leaders, has also its value — a practical 

In a general way we in the Scout Movement try 
to give our working lads a jollier outlook on life 
and to bring the chance to each one of them to 

Be Ye Prepared 157 

make a successful career for himself as well as to do 
useful work for the community. In a word we 
aim for a sane democracy. 

If an adequate leaven of the rising generation of 
citizens are habited this way, then Peace and 
Happiness, Truth and Justice will have their 
chance in the land. 

The League of Nations 

In the Scout Movement we could do a great deal 
towards the League of Free Nations that is being 
talked of for the permanence of peace. 

A step towards the realisation of such a league 
lies in the comradeship of the • war which binds 
the present generation. 

But a guarantee is needed that that good feeling 
is continued in the successors of the present men. 

And in this brotherhood of Scouts, which now 
extends to every civilised country (including the 
most recently civilised — Mesopotamia!), there is 
just the nucleus for such fellow-feeling and close 
sympathy on a practical footing. 


Note. — The following are sample questions such as an examiner 
could put to candidates for Scoutmasters' Diplomas, or 
students could put to themselves on the different subjects 
of study given in the foregoing pages. 

(Questions to be Answered by Candidates) 
I. "How to Train the Boy" 

1 . What would you consider three of the main 
difficulties of the present system of school edu- 
cation — and how can Scouting be applied to help 
the schoolmaster in remedying it ? 

2. What, from personal observation, do you 
consider are the chief characteristics of a ' ' working 

3. Mention any "Blind Alley" occupation 
with which you are personally acquainted, or 
about which you have information. Suggest 
how Scouting could be applied to remedy its evils. 

4. I have two letters criticising the book, Scout- 
ing for Boys. One says it is too full of subjects, 
that a learner cannot possibly take up all of them, 
and, therefore, the book is confusing. The other 
says he has tried the training, but has got through 


160 Aids to Scoutmastership 

it all, and wants a further book with more subjects 
in it. State what you consider the functions of 
the book, and give from your point of view any 
suggestions as to how it would better fulfil its 

5. What do we mean by a "bad environment 
for boys," and how can Scouting be applied to 
counteract it? 

6. What do you consider is the greatest factor 
for success in training boys, and outline how this 
is to be obtained ? 

II. Character Training 

1. What do you consider to be the difference 
between "Education" and "Instruction"? 

2. What is your view of Military Drill as a 
means of training boys in character? State 
briefly its advantages and disadvantages. 

3. What are the objects, advantages, or dis- 
advantages of the Patrol System — that is, having 
Patrols as units in the Troops under full control of 
their Patrol Leaders? 

4. How do you start to teach a boy tracking? 
What is the object of teaching him? 

5. Which Scout Badges do you consider best 
calculated to develop "character" in the boy? 

6. Draw up a program for a day's work in 
Camp, particularly for the purpose of training the 
boys in character. Give your reasons for the 
different practices selected. 

Appendix 161 

III. Physical Health and Develop- 

i. Can you suggest any better body oxer. 
for boys than the six given in Scouting for Box* .' 
If so, please describe them briefly and give 
sons. If satisfied with those in the book, state 
why you consider them the best. 

2. How would you put the matter of sex- 
knowledge to an average boy of twelve assuming 
the parents desired you to do so? Give a brief 
outline showing how you would explain it, and 
what advice you would give on the subject of 
impurity. State whether your reply is based 
on actual experience of teaching boys or on 

3. In selecting a site for a camp, what points 
would you chiefly bear in mind? 

4. What food diet would you recommend for a 
camp of poor-class Scouts ? Give reasons for your 
selection, and estimate quantities and cost for 
twenty boys for one week. 

5. How does the work for a Missioner's Badge 
help a boy to be healthy? 

6. It has been suggested that the Scout Move- 
ment might give valuable help in the physical 
development and health of the boys of the nation 
if it started a regular physical system. For this 
purpose it has been proposed to institute an 
" Athletes" Badge in three classes, viz.: — 

First-class. — Boys who are up to the average 

162 Aids to Scoutmastership 

standard of their age in various details of 

physical development and who can swim. 
Second-class. — Boys who are similarly up to the 

standard, but who cannot swim. 
Third-class. — Boys who fail to pass the tests for 

second-class, but come up to a modified 

Can you suggest the best practical method for 
carrying out this scheme, taking into consideration 
such points as — 

(a) The time, knowledge, apparatus, etc., avail- 

able to the average Scoutmaster. 

(b) The attractiveness to the boy, such as to 

induce every boy to go in for it. 

(c) The nature of points on which the boys could 

best be treated ? 

IV. "Making a Career" 

i. What technical training is available in your 
neighbourhood for a Scout desirous of becoming a 
joiner (or any other kind of artisan)? What 
would you do in the way of starting him in his 
trade career? 

2. Give a rough outline of the chief forms of 
employment of a profitable character in your 
neighbourhood which are suitable for Scouts. In 
the case of some one specific calling, give the condi- 
tions, such as length of hours, average wages, 
prospects, etc. 

3. What motto would you give the Scout as 

Appendix 163 

one to follow in order to be successful in a business 
career? Give an outline of the points you would 
impress upon him, using the motto as your text. 

4. In what way can Scoutmasters and school- 
masters collaborate with a view to setting boys 
working for definite careers ? 

5. In what way can Scoutmasters use the Local 
Employment Bureau on behalf of their boys ? 

6. Criticise the regulations for any one of the 
Proficiency Badges that concerns a boy's career, 
and suggest any alterations that seem desirable 
to you with a regard to making this badge more 
useful or popular. 

V. "Service for Others" 

1 . Assuming that a Scoutmaster may desire to 
leave the spiritual training of his boys to their 
pastors and parents, which Scouting activities can 
he best employ as a practical training that will be 
complementary to the religious instruction given 
by them? 

2. Selfishness has been outlined as a prevailing 
vice in our nation. Can you show examples of 
this and suggest any methods for eradicating it 
among boys? Do not necessarily adhere to the 
illustrations given in this book. 

3. Suggest points in which Scouts could be 
prepared for assisting in the defence of the country 
in case of invasion without involving actual mili- 
tary training. 

164 Aids to Scoutmastership 

4. Outline a lesson for a Scoutmaster to give 
such as would tend to develop a boy's self -rever- 
ence, continence, and self-respect. 

5. State what you consider the chief points of 
value in organising your Senior Scouts. 

6. Suggest any ideas for training or for keeping 
up the interest of Old Scouts in Scouting. 

[N.B. — By the term "Senior Scout" is meant a 
youth who is still a Scout in a Troop, but is grow- 
ing up — say between sixteen and twenty. 

By the term "Old Scout" is meant one who 
has left his Troop either on account of age, or 
because of work, change of location, or other rea- 
son which prevents him continuing in his Troop.] 

CAMP (held in 1914) 

This series of week-end camps is being held, 
partly to encourage Scoutmasters in running their 
Troops on the Patrol system, partly to enable them 
to exchange ideas, and therefore to put new life 
into their Troops, but chiefly to establish study 
Patrols, as suggested by the Chief Scout. It will 
be noticed that each camp is based on some part 
of Scouting for Boys, and also on one of the articles 
by the Chief for training Scoutmasters. 

The dates for the Camp will be — 

May 16th and 17th. June 27th and 28th. 
July nth and 12th. July 18th and 19th. 

Appendix 165 


Camp will be open at 2 p.m. on Saturday and be 
struck at 10 a.m. on Monday. 

Patrols will be able to leave on Sunday night, if 


On Saturday afternoon there will be practical 
work, and in the evening there will be practical 
work followed by a Camp-fire yarn. 

On Sunday morning there will be a flag-post 
parade and service. On Sunday afternoon there 
will be addresses on the Saturday's work — treating 
rather of the moral aspect — followed by practical 
displays on those points on which Scoutmasters 
have asked questions the previous night. On 
Sunday night there will be an open discussion on 


1 st Sunday, "Character training." 
2d Sunday, ' ' Employment. 
3d Sunday, "The body." 
4th Sunday, "Training the boys." 


Associations may send Patrols of five. As th« 
Camp will be run entirely on the Patrol system, 
single Scoutmasters cannot be accepted. It is 
immaterial whether these Patrols or circles consist 

166 Aids to Scoutmastership 

of Scoutmasters, Assistant Scoutmasters, Instruc- 
tors, or potential Officers. 

Associations may send as many Patrols as they 

Applications to attend must be sent to the 
London Office, through Association Secretaries. 



This will be announced later, when it is more 
certain that the Scheme will be supported. It 
will be somewhere in or near London. 

Speakers, etc. 

Each week-end will be run by a different man, as 
no one man is both competent and available to 
teach all the proposed subjects. The speakers 
will not be announced until I know the amount of 
support I may expect. 


No smoking will be allowed in Camp, except 
round the Camp-fire at night. Scouting for Boys, 
pp. 193, 194. 


No drinks will be allowed in Camp, except such 
as are made by the Patrols in Camp. Scouting for 
Boys, pp. 195, 196. 

Appendix 167 


All orders, as far as possible, will be given by 
whistle signals. Scouting for Boys, p. 82. 
Bugles will not be used. 


Before attending, every Scoutmaster should 
read up for — 

1st week-end — Scouting for Boys, Chaps. 2 and 5. 

Chief's article on " Character Training." 
2d week-end. — Scouting for Boys, Chap. 3, Yarns 
8 and 9. 

Article, "Handicrafts." 
3rd week-end. — Scouting for Boys, Chaps. 7 and 

Article, "The responsibility for health." 
4th week-end. — Scouting for Boys, Chap. 10. 
Article, "Service for others." 


ist Week-end. — Individual Character 

3 p.m. — Circular rally. 

Enrolling a Scout. 

Tent pitching and camp planning. 

5 p.m. — Tea in Patrol camps. 

6 p.m. — Map reading. 

Observation and deduction. 

Nature study in country and in town. 

1 68 Aids to Scoutmastership 

7.30 p.m. — Camp-fire. 

Signal fires, followed by- 
Yarn on "Scout Law" and Patrol system. 

2D Week-end. — Skill and Making a Career 

3 p.m. — Circular rally. 
Bridge building. 
Knot tying. 
Pioneer work. 

5 p.m. — Tea in Patrol camps. 

6 p.m. — Camp expedients. 

7.30 p.m. — The rifle, and how to use it. 

Yarn on "Citizenship," "Employment 
Agencies," etc. 

3D Week-end. — Physical Health 

3 p.m. — Circular rally. 

Scout pace and drill. 

Physical exercises through games and re- 
creational activities. 

5 p.m. — Tea in Patrol camps. 

6 p.m. — Anatomy. 

Punctuality — internal and external. 
Visual Training. 
7.30 p.m. — Sense of smell and touch. 
Causes of loss of them. 
Yarn, "How to teach boys continence, 
cleanliness, anatomy." 

Appendix 169 

4TH Week-end. — Service for Others 

3 p.m. — Circular rally. 
Life saving. 

5 p.m. — Tea in Patrol camps. 

6 p.m. — First-aid in practice. 
7.30 p.m. — Nursing. 

Yarn, "How to Train a Troop." 




Hints for Cub-Masters 

Don't be frightened by the length of these Hints; 
they are only intended to be suggestive or helpful 
to beginners. 

Objects of the Wolf Cub Training 

Our object in taking up the training of the Wolf 
Cubs is not merely to devise a pleasant pastime 
for the Cub-masters or for the boys, but to improve 
the efficiency of the future citizens of our Empire. 

The past training of these has not proved ade- 
quate for the requirements of to-day, since the 
taxpayers' bill for educating the children to become 
efficient citizens is only exceeded by the bill he 
has to pay for police, prisons, poor relief, etc., 
owing to their failure to respond to such training. 

If the training is not good enough for to-day 
much less is it good enough for to-morrow, and it 
is to to-morrow that we must look forward. 

Character is acknowledged to be of greater im- 
portance than mere book instruction for citizen 
efficiency. And yet no practical scheme exists 


174 Aids to Scout mastership 

for its inclusion in education to even an equivalent 

Efficiency has been defined as ' ' being gaugeable 
by the amount of supervision that a man needs" 
(Robert E. Meadows). But this, of course, ap- 
plies only to the extent of moral efficiency, 
whereas physical efficiency is also of the highest 
value in completing the citizen efficiency of a man. 

Physical health and how to develop it should be 
as much a part of education as scholarly, scientific, 
or technical attainments. 

The thousands of hours and the tens of thou- 
sands of pounds that are lost annually through 
strikes or lockouts are as nothing compared with 
tens of thousands of hours and the hundreds of 
thousands of pounds that are lost through prevent- 
able physical inefficiency and ill-health. 

Our training of the Cubs therefore is directed to 
these two main ends as shown diagrammatically 
at the beginning of Part II. of The Wolf Cub's 

It is done at the most important time of their 
lives, when they are most mouldable both in body 
and in mind to receive the right directions. 

With a foundation laid thus early we may hope 
that the subsequent structure may be all the 
more satisfactory, especially since it forms part of 
a progressive system to be continued and main- 
tained during the period of his Boy Scout training. 
So that when he comes to years of discretion, 
health-athleticism, coupled with character, will 'be 

Object of Wolf Cub Training 175 

the habit of the majority rather than the accom- 
plishment of the few. 

The Wolf Cub Pack is designed to be a Junior 
Branch of the Scout Movement in order to meet 
the eagerness of a large number of small boys who 
want to be Scouts and who are as yet too young. 

It does not do to put them to the same tasks and 
tests as the older boys, especially in the company of 
the older boys, as they are likely to overdo them- 
selves in the effort to keep up to the mark. 

At the same time the older boys on their part do 
not care to mix with "kids" in their pursuits. It 
is for every reason better to keep the two apart. 

On the other hand there is, of course, no harm in 
Cub Packs and Scout Troops parading together 
for inspection rallies and so on. 

The Cub training, and also its Promise and the 
Law, are different from but steps towards those of 
the Scouts. 

It is scarcely right to ask the younger boys to 
undertake duties and promises which they can 
neither grasp nor carry out. Cub-masters should 
of course teach their boys in a simple and practical 
manner and in consultation with their Chaplain 
what is meant by their Promise of "Duty to God," 
and should give what other religious and moral 
instruction they think necessary to prepare the 
Cub for becoming a good Scout. 

Method. — Our method of training is to educate 
from within rather than to instruct from without ; 
to offer games and activities which, while being 

17 6 Aids to Scoutmastership 

attractive to the small boy, will seriously educate 
him morally, mentally, and physically. 

Our aim, as Fisher wrote, is to promote "not 
so much the acquisition of knowledge as the desire 
and capacity for acquiring knowledge." 

In other words, the Cub-master's job is to 
enthuse the boy in the right direction. By acting 
on this principle he will save himself considerable 
trouble in reaching his goal and in producing a 
smart Pack of keen and capable boys. 

It is the means by which the modern school- 
master scores over his more old-fashioned brother, 
since he develops a boy to be efficient rather than 
scholarly, to have character rather than erudition 
— and that is what counts towards success in life 

By " efficiency" I don't mean mere money- 
making skill, but a general intelligence and capa- 
bility to live a free, prosperous, and happy life. 

To preach "don't" is to incite the doing of 
wrong. Rather infuse the right spirit; as powder 
is to the shot so is spirit to action. 

Direct moral instruction — like drill — produces a 
pleasing veneer, but unless there is properly sea- 
soned character below, this will not stand wear. 

Lord Morley has said: "It is well known to the 
wise, but an everlasting puzzle to the foolish, that 
direct inculcation of morals should invariably 
prove so powerless an instrument, so futile a 
method." Have we not found this so in Sunday 
School and other teaching ? 

Object of Wolf Cub Training 177 

Wise old Plato long ago gave us the right lead 
in education, and one which only now is beginning 
to be followed, when he said that there was innate 
good in every child, and the aim of education 
should be to develop these natural "instincts of 
virtue" through suitable practices. 

No mention of reading, writing, and 'rithmetic as 
essentials, but of enlarging the natural instincts, 
i.e., character by practices, not merely by precepts. 

The average boy (if there is such a thing as an 
average boy) does not want to sit down and pas- 
sively receive theoretical instruction. He wants 
to be up and actually doing things in practice, and 
this is a good lever to work upon if only the teacher 
will recognise it as the instrument ready to his 

Your first step then is to study the boy himself; 
to recognise his likes and dislikes, his good quali- 
ties and his bad, and to direct his training on these. 

The Psychology of the Cub-master 

There are two fundamental points to be con- 
sidered in dealing with the Cubs. The first is 
that the only man who can hope for real success as 
a trainer of Cubs is the one who can be their 
"elder brother." The "commanding officer" is 
no good, and the "schoolmaster" is doomed to 
failure (though probably in neither case would the 
man recognise it himself, or admit it). This fact 
is being proved daily by the successful results 

178 Aids to Scoutmastership 

already obtained by our Cub-masters, and, may I 
add, by our Lady Cub-masters. 

By the term "elder brother" I mean one who 
can place himself on terms of comradeship with his 
boys, entering into their games and laughter him- 
self, thereby winning their confidence and putting 
himself into that position which is essential for 
teaching, namely — where, by his own example, he 
leads them in the right direction instead of being 
a fingerpost, often too high above their heads, 
merely pointing the way. 

The Psychology of the Cub 

The second item to recognise, although as a 
point it is of first importance, is that the boy of 
eight to ten is psychologically quite different from 
the boy of eleven to fifteen. I don't mean that 
the change comes about with a bang in the tenth 
year, but the younger boy is growing relatively, in 
mind and body, more rapidly than the elder one, 
and the transition gradually comes about approxi- 
mately at those ages in the average boy. 
Psychological Phases: 

6 to 8 Dramatic instinct and make-believe, 
8 to II Self-assertive individuality and ri- 
II to 15 Hero-worship and co-operative loy- 
It may be taken for granted that boys of the Cub 
age have these following propensities, namely — to 

Object of Wolf Cub Training 179 

lie, to be selfish, to be cruel, and to be bombastic 
or pharisaical ; but it must be at once recognised 
that these attributes are not born of malicious 
design, they are rather the natural outcome of the 
peculiar attitude of mind at that age. It has to 
be recognised that while the elder boy — he of 
Scout age — is full of hero-worship and eagerness 
to work in a gang under a good leader and in com- 
petition with other gangs, especially in chivalrous 
service, the younger boy, just emerging from the 
chrysalis of childhood, is more of an individual, 
feeling his feet, as it were, more self-centred, for 
the first time finding himself able to do things, 
anxious to do things himself and to make things, 
and the moment that he achieves a step of any 
kind he is prone to "show off." 

He is only just out of the age of toys, and is still 
very much in the land of make-believe. He is 
eager to have, but not to give. He is at the most 
mouldable period of his life. 

Thus there are many seeds of evil beginning to 
sprout into pliant tendrils ready to trail off in 
wrong directions, but easily taken in hand and 
trained aright. 

The question which troubles many instructors 
is, how can this best be done? 

It is evident that the Cub-master must be quick 
to recognise the evil points where they show them- 
selves. The very usual process on the part of 
parents (who have forgotten their childhood) is 
at once to repress such propensities in the rare 

180 Aids to Scoutmastership 

cases where they have been smart enough to 
recognise them; but repression is the very worst 
possible line to take. It is the cutting of shoots 
which makes them branch out into more devious 
growths; it tends to make the boy to lie more 
cunningly, to secrete his selfishness, and to put a 
better gloss on to his hypocrisy. 

The Psychology of the Boy 

This may be divided into three stages at the 
approximate ages : 

Up to 8 years 

Dawning con- 


Fairy stories, 


8 to 1 1 Over 1 1 

Personal Rivalry Co-operation 

Individuality Constructiveness 

Constructiveness Inventiveness 

Inquisitiveness Team games 

Eagerness for Games with 

new experi- rules 


Absorption in Discipline 

new games Hero-worship 

Collecting Romance 

stamps, scraps, Adventure 


Active virtues 

Romping, rowdy Sensitiveness 


Object of Wolf Cub Training 181 

Up to 8 years 8 to 1 1 Over 1 1 

Dramatic Personal Rivalry Co-operation 

Restlessness, Dawning con- 

mental science, etc. 


Cruelty Sense of pathos 

Thoughtlessness Sense of humour 
Fondness of Sense of sym- 

showing off pathy 

Brave deed 

Little boys are apt at bombast and hence at 
lying without any really vicious intent, but it is 
well to cure this habit in its early stages lest worse 

To cure lying it is well, when you nail a lie, not 
to abuse the boy for it, but merely to show that 
you are not taken in by it. Contempt will conquer 
some boys, and ridicule is pretty certain to cure 
others. Whenever he tries to lie again, some mild 
chaff to show him that the first lie is not forgotten 
will probably have a very wholesome effect. 

Selfishness can be taught in a practical way by 
getting boys to give things away to others. 

A youngster cannot naturally keep still for ten 
minutes — much less for hours as is sometimes 
expected of him in school. 

We have to remember that he is suffering from 
the "growing itch," both mentally and physically. 

1 82 Aids to Scoutmaster ship 

The best cure is to change the subject, let him out 
for a run, or for a war dance. 

For his athletics do not be content to let him 
merely run about doing things, but help him with 
advice, and, if you are not too fat, with example 

To run To vault 

To jump To bowl 

To throw To catch, etc. 

These are really better for him physically and 
mentally than even Swedish Drill, as they are 
direct preparation for practical work in games, etc., 
while they are equally good in developing his 
organs and muscle by natural process. 

The relation between Cub-master and his Cub 
has its analogy in the care of Wolf Cubs by the 
Mother Wolf, as described by W. J. Long in his 
book, Northern Trails, a book, by the way, from 
which many charming stories of Wolf Cubs in the 
jungle can be extracted for Wolf Cubs in the club 

Of the Mother Wolf he writes : 

In the bright afternoons and long summer twilights 
she led the Cubs forth on short journeys to hunt for 
themselves. No big caribou or cunning fox cub, as 
one might suppose, but "rats and mice and such 
small deer" were the limit of the Mother's ambition 
for her little ones. ... It was astonishing how 
quickly the Cubs learned that game is not to be picked 

Object of Wolf Cub Training 183 

up tamely like huckleberries, and changed their style 
of hunting — creeping, instead of trotting openly, so 
that even a porcupine must notice them, hiding behind 
rocks and bushes till the precise moment came, and 
then leaping with the swoop of a goshawk on a ptarmi- 

A wolf that cannot catch a grasshopper has no 
business hunting rabbits — this seemed to be the 
unconscious motive that led the old Mother, every 
sunny afternoon, to ignore the thickets where game 
was hiding plentifully, and take her Cubs to the dry 
sunny plains on the edge of the Caribou Barrens. 

There for hours at a time they hunted elusive grass- 
hoppers, rushing helter-skelter over the dry moss, 
leaping up to strike at the flying game with their 
paws like a kitten, or snapping wildly to catch it in 
their mouths and coming down with a back-breaking 
wriggle to keep themselves from tumbling over on 
their heads. 

Then on again, with a droll expression and noses 
sharpened like exclamation points, to find another 

Small business indeed and often ludicrous this 
playing at grasshopper hunting. 

So it seems to us ; so also perhaps to the wise old 
Mother who knew all the ways of game, from 
crickets to caribou and from ground sparrows to 
wild geese. 

But play is the first great educator — that is as 
true of animals as of men — and to the Cubs their 
rough helter-skelter after hoppers was as exciting 
as a stag hunt to the pack, as full of surprises as 

1 84 Aids to Scoutmastership 

the wild chase through the soft snow after a litter 
of lynx kittens. 

And though they knew it not, they were learning 
things every hour of the sunny playful afternoons 
that they would remember and find useful all the 
days of their life. 

And so it is with our Wolf Cubs. We teach 
them small things in play which will eventually 
fit them for doing big things in earnest. 

The great principle for dealing with the Wolf 
Cub Pack, and one by which the youngsters can 
be attracted and their failings remedied, is to make 
the Cubs into a happy family — not a family, but 
a happy family. 

Boys want noise, let them have it. When they 
play let them play heartily, if the Cub-master 
has the sense to organise his program that way. 

Laughter essential. We have advocated in the 
Scout training the development of the Scout Smile 
as a necessary adjunct; with the Cubs the smile 
should be a laugh. Laughter counteracts most of 
the evils of the very young and makes for cheery 
companionship and open-mindedness. The boy 
who laughs much lies little. 

\JHlt *■ V '"■